10.2168/LMCS-11(3:24)2015
https://lmcs.episciences.org/1600
Jacobs, Bart
Bart
Jacobs
New Directions in Categorical Logic, for Classical, Probabilistic and Quantum Logic
Intuitionistic logic, in which the double negation law not-not-P = P fails,
is dominant in categorical logic, notably in topos theory. This paper follows a
different direction in which double negation does hold. The algebraic notions
of effect algebra/module that emerged in theoretical physics form the
cornerstone. It is shown that under mild conditions on a category, its maps of
the form X -> 1+1 carry such effect module structure, and can be used as
predicates. Predicates are identified in many different situations, and capture
for instance ordinary subsets, fuzzy predicates in a probabilistic setting,
idempotents in a ring, and effects (positive elements below the unit) in a
C*-algebra or Hilbert space. In quantum foundations the duality between states
and effects plays an important role. It appears here in the form of an
adjunction, where we use maps 1 -> X as states. For such a state s and a
predicate p, the validity probability s |= p is defined, as an abstract Born
rule. It captures many forms of (Boolean or probabilistic) validity known from
the literature. Measurement from quantum mechanics is formalised categorically
in terms of `instruments', using L\"uders rule in the quantum case. These
instruments are special maps associated with predicates (more generally, with
tests), which perform the act of measurement and may have a side-effect that
disturbs the system under observation. This abstract description of
side-effects is one of the main achievements of the current approach. It is
shown that in the special case of C*-algebras, side-effect appear exclusively
in the non-commutative case. Also, these instruments are used for test
operators in a dynamic logic that can be used for reasoning about quantum
programs/protocols. The paper describes four successive assumptions, towards a
categorical axiomatisation of quantitative logic for probabilistic and quantum
systems.
episciences.org
Mathematics - Logic
Computer Science - Logic in Computer Science
Quantum Physics
2022-09-28
2015-10-01
2015-10-01
eng
journal article
arXiv:1205.3940
10.48550/arXiv.1205.3940
1860-5974
https://lmcs.episciences.org/1600/pdf
VoR
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Logical Methods in Computer Science
Volume 11, Issue 3
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