Volume 1, Issue 2

2005


1. Deciding Quantifier-Free Presburger Formulas Using Parameterized Solution Bounds

Seshia, Sanjit A. ; Bryant, Randal E..
Given a formula in quantifier-free Presburger arithmetic, if it has a satisfying solution, there is one whose size, measured in bits, is polynomially bounded in the size of the formula. In this paper, we consider a special class of quantifier-free Presburger formulas in which most linear constraints are difference (separation) constraints, and the non-difference constraints are sparse. This class has been observed to commonly occur in software verification. We derive a new solution bound in terms of parameters characterizing the sparseness of linear constraints and the number of non-difference constraints, in addition to traditional measures of formula size. In particular, we show that the number of bits needed per integer variable is linear in the number of non-difference constraints and logarithmic in the number and size of non-zero coefficients in them, but is otherwise independent of the total number of linear constraints in the formula. The derived bound can be used in a decision procedure based on instantiating integer variables over a finite domain and translating the input quantifier-free Presburger formula to an equi-satisfiable Boolean formula, which is then checked using a Boolean satisfiability solver. In addition to our main theoretical result, we discuss several optimizations for deriving tighter bounds in practice. Empirical evidence indicates that our decision procedure can greatly outperform other decision procedures.

2. An Operational Foundation for Delimited Continuations in<br><br> the<br><br><br> CPS<br><br> Hierarchy

Biernacka, Malgorzata ; Biernacki, Dariusz ; Danvy, Olivier.
We present an abstract machine and a reduction semantics for the lambda-calculus extended with control operators that give access to delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy. The abstract machine is derived from an evaluator in continuation-passing style (CPS); the reduction semantics (i.e., a small-step operational semantics with an explicit representation of evaluation contexts) is constructed from the abstract machine; and the control operators are the shift and reset family. We also present new applications of delimited continuations in the CPS hierarchy: finding list prefixes and normalization by evaluation for a hierarchical language of units and products.

3. Comparing hierarchies of total functionals

Normann, Dag.
In this paper we consider two hierarchies of hereditarily total and continuous functionals over the reals based on one extensional and one intensional representation of real numbers, and we discuss under which asumptions these hierarchies coincide. This coincidense problem is equivalent to a statement about the topology of the Kleene-Kreisel continuous functionals. As a tool of independent interest, we show that the Kleene-Kreisel functionals may be embedded into both these hierarchies.

4. Strong normalisation for applied lambda calculi

Berger, Ulrich.
We consider the untyped lambda calculus with constructors and recursively defined constants. We construct a domain-theoretic model such that any term not denoting bottom is strongly normalising provided all its `stratified approximations' are. From this we derive a general normalisation theorem for applied typed lambda-calculi: If all constants have a total value, then all typeable terms are strongly normalising. We apply this result to extensions of Gödel's system T and system F extended by various forms of bar recursion for which strong normalisation was hitherto unknown.

5. General Recursion via Coinductive Types

Capretta, Venanzio.
A fertile field of research in theoretical computer science investigates the representation of general recursive functions in intensional type theories. Among the most successful approaches are: the use of wellfounded relations, implementation of operational semantics, formalization of domain theory, and inductive definition of domain predicates. Here, a different solution is proposed: exploiting coinductive types to model infinite computations. To every type A we associate a type of partial elements Partial(A), coinductively generated by two constructors: the first, return(a) just returns an element a:A; the second, step(x), adds a computation step to a recursive element x:Partial(A). We show how this simple device is sufficient to formalize all recursive functions between two given types. It allows the definition of fixed points of finitary, that is, continuous, operators. We will compare this approach to different ones from the literature. Finally, we mention that the formalization, with appropriate structural maps, defines a strong monad.

6. Internalising modified realisability in constructive type theory

Palmgren, Erik.
A modified realisability interpretation of infinitary logic is formalised and proved sound in constructive type theory (CTT). The logic considered subsumes first order logic. The interpretation makes it possible to extract programs with simplified types and to incorporate and reason about them in CTT.