As the development of formal proofs is a time-consuming task, it is important to devise ways of sharing the already written proofs to prevent wasting time redoing them. One of the challenges in this domain is to translate proofs written in proof assistants based on impredicative logics to proof assistants based on predicative logics, whenever impredicativity is not used in an essential way. In this paper we present a transformation for sharing proofs with a core predicative system supporting prenex universe polymorphism. It consists in trying to elaborate each term into a predicative universe-polymorphic term as general as possible. The use of universe polymorphism is justified by the fact that mapping each universe to a fixed one in the target theory is not sufficient in most cases. During the elaboration, we need to solve unification problems in the equational theory of universe levels. In order to do this, we give a complete characterization of when a single equation admits a most general unifier. This characterization is then employed in a partial algorithm which uses a constraint-postponement strategy for trying to solve unification problems. The proposed translation is of course partial, but in practice allows one to translate many proofs that do not use impredicativity in an essential way. Indeed, it was implemented in the tool Predicativize and then used to translate semi-automatically many non-trivial developments from Matita's library to Agda, including proofs of […]

Published on September 10, 2024

The Merge Resolution proof system (M-Res) for QBFs, proposed by Beyersdorff et al. in 2019, explicitly builds partial strategies inside refutations. The original motivation for this approach was to overcome the limitations encountered in long-distance Q-Resolution proof system (LD-Q-Res), where the syntactic side-conditions, while prohibiting all unsound resolutions, also end up prohibiting some sound resolutions. However, while the advantage of M-Res over many other resolution-based QBF proof systems was already demonstrated, a comparison with LD-Q-Res itself had remained open. In this paper, we settle this question. We show that M-Res has an exponential advantage over not only LD-Q-Res, but even over LQU$^+$-Res and IRM, the most powerful among currently known resolution-based QBF proof systems. Combining this with results from Beyersdorff et al. 2020, we conclude that M-Res is incomparable with LQU-Res and LQU$^+$-Res. Our proof method reveals two additional and curious features about M-Res: (i) M-Res is not closed under restrictions, and is hence not a natural proof system, and (ii) weakening axiom clauses with existential variables provably yields an exponential advantage over M-Res without weakening. We further show that in the context of regular derivations, weakening axiom clauses with universal variables provably yields an exponential advantage over M-Res without weakening. These results suggest that M-Res is better used with weakening, though whether M-Res with […]

Published on September 10, 2024

We consider the following decision problem: given two simply typed $\lambda$-terms, are they $\beta$-convertible? Equivalently, do they have the same normal form? It is famously non-elementary, but the precise complexity - namely TOWER-complete - is lesser known. One goal of this short paper is to popularize this fact. Our original contribution is to show that the problem stays TOWER-complete when the two input terms belong to Blum and Ong's safe $\lambda$-calculus, a fragment of the simply typed $\lambda$-calculus arising from the study of higher-order recursion schemes. Previously, the best known lower bound for this safe $\beta$-convertibility problem was PSPACE-hardness. Our proof proceeds by reduction from the star-free expression equivalence problem, taking inspiration from the author's work with Pradic on "implicit automata in typed $\lambda$-calculi". These results also hold for $\beta\eta$-convertibility.

Published on September 5, 2024

We investigate a number of semantically defined fragments of Tarski's algebra of binary relations, including the function-preserving fragment. We address the question whether they are generated by a finite set of operations. We obtain several positive and negative results along these lines. Specifically, the homomorphism-safe fragment is finitely generated (both over finite and over arbitrary structures). The function-preserving fragment is not finitely generated (and, in fact, not expressible by any finite set of guarded second-order definable function-preserving operations). Similarly, the total-function-preserving fragment is not finitely generated (and, in fact, not expressible by any finite set of guarded second-order definable total-function-preserving operations). In contrast, the forward-looking function-preserving fragment is finitely generated by composition, intersection, antidomain, and preferential union. Similarly, the forward-and-backward-looking injective-function-preserving fragment is finitely generated by composition, intersection, antidomain, inverse, and an `injective union' operation.

Published on September 4, 2024

In two-player games on graphs, the simplest possible strategies are those that can be implemented without any memory. These are called positional strategies. In this paper, we characterize objectives recognizable by deterministic B\"uchi automata (a subclass of omega-regular objectives) that are half-positional, that is, for which the protagonist can always play optimally using positional strategies (both over finite and infinite graphs). Our characterization consists of three natural conditions linked to the language-theoretic notion of right congruence. Furthermore, this characterization yields a polynomial-time algorithm to decide half-positionality of an objective recognized by a given deterministic B\"uchi automaton.

Published on August 29, 2024

Stefan Milius

Editor-in-Chief

Brigitte Pientka

Fabio Zanasi

Executive Editors

Editorial Board

Executive Board

Publisher

**eISSN: 1860-5974**

Logical Methods in Computer Science is an open-access journal, covered by SCOPUS, DBLP, Web of Science, Mathematical Reviews and Zentralblatt. The journal is a member of the Free Journal Network. All journal content is licensed under a Creative Commons license.