Volume 2, Issue 4


1. Solution of a Problem of Barendregt on Sensible lambda-Theories

Intrigila, Benedetto ; Statman, Richard.
<i>H</i> is the theory extending &#946;-conversion by identifying all closed unsolvables. <i>H</i>&#969; is the closure of this theory under the &#969;-rule (and &#946;-conversion). A long-standing conjecture of H. Barendregt states that the provable equations of <i>H</i>&#969; form &#928;<sub>1</sub><sup>1</sup>-complete set. Here we prove that conjecture.

2. Generalized Majority-Minority Operations are Tractable

Dalmau, Victor.
Generalized majority-minority (GMM) operations are introduced as a common generalization of near unanimity operations and Mal'tsev operations on finite sets. We show that every instance of the constraint satisfaction problem (CSP), where all constraint relations are invariant under a (fixed) GMM operation, is solvable in polynomial time. This constitutes one of the largest tractable cases of the CSP.

3. A State-Based Regression Formulation for Domains with Sensing Actions<br> and Incomplete Information

Tuan, Le-Chi ; Baral, Chitta ; Son, Tran Cao.
We present a state-based regression function for planning domains where an agent does not have complete information and may have sensing actions. We consider binary domains and employ a three-valued characterization of domains with sensing actions to define the regression function. We prove the soundness and completeness of our regression formulation with respect to the definition of progression. More specifically, we show that (i) a plan obtained through regression for a planning problem is indeed a progression solution of that planning problem, and that (ii) for each plan found through progression, using regression one obtains that plan or an equivalent one.

4. From Proof Nets to the Free *-Autonomous Category

Lamarche, Francois ; Strassburger, Lutz.
In the first part of this paper we present a theory of proof nets for full multiplicative linear logic, including the two units. It naturally extends the well-known theory of unit-free multiplicative proof nets. A linking is no longer a set of axiom links but a tree in which the axiom links are subtrees. These trees will be identified according to an equivalence relation based on a simple form of graph rewriting. We show the standard results of sequentialization and strong normalization of cut elimination. In the second part of the paper we show that the identifications enforced on proofs are such that the class of two-conclusion proof nets defines the free *-autonomous category.

5. Combining decision procedures for the reals

Avigad, Jeremy ; Friedman, Harvey.
<p>We address the general problem of determining the validity of boolean combinations of equalities and inequalities between real-valued expressions. In particular, we consider methods of establishing such assertions using only restricted forms of distributivity. At the same time, we explore ways in which "local" decision or heuristic procedures for fragments of the theory of the reals can be amalgamated into global ones. </p> <p>Let <em>Tadd[Q]</em> be the first-order theory of the real numbers in the language of ordered groups, with negation, a constant <em>1</em>, and function symbols for multiplication by rational constants. Let <em>Tmult[Q]</em> be the analogous theory for the multiplicative structure, and let <em>T[Q]</em> be the union of the two. We show that although <em>T[Q]</em> is undecidable, the universal fragment of <em>T[Q]</em> is decidable. We also show that terms of <em>T[Q]</em>can fruitfully be put in a normal form. We prove analogous results for theories in which <em>Q</em> is replaced, more generally, by suitable subfields <em>F</em> of the reals. Finally, we consider practical methods of establishing quantifier-free validities that approximate our (impractical) decidability results.</p>

6. Positional Determinacy of Games with Infinitely Many Priorities

Graedel, Erich ; Walukiewicz, Igor.
We study two-player games of infinite duration that are played on finite or infinite game graphs. A winning strategy for such a game is positional if it only depends on the current position, and not on the history of the play. A game is positionally determined if, from each position, one of the two players has a positional winning strategy. The theory of such games is well studied for winning conditions that are defined in terms of a mapping that assigns to each position a priority from a finite set. Specifically, in Muller games the winner of a play is determined by the set of those priorities that have been seen infinitely often; an important special case are parity games where the least (or greatest) priority occurring infinitely often determines the winner. It is well-known that parity games are positionally determined whereas Muller games are determined via finite-memory strategies. In this paper, we extend this theory to the case of games with infinitely many priorities. Such games arise in several application areas, for instance in pushdown games with winning conditions depending on stack contents. For parity games there are several generalisations to the case of infinitely many priorities. While max-parity games over omega or min-parity games over larger ordinals than omega require strategies with infinite memory, we can prove that min-parity games with priorities in omega are positionally determined. Indeed, it turns out that the min-parity condition over […]