2008

For many a natural deduction style logic there is a Hilbert-style logic that is equivalent to it in that it has the same theorems (i.e. valid judgements with empty contexts). For intuitionistic logic, the axioms of the equivalent Hilbert-style logic can be propositions which are also known as the types of the combinators I, K and S. Hilbert-style versions of illative combinatory logic have formulations with axioms that are actual type statements for I, K and S. As pure type systems (PTSs)are, in a sense, equivalent to systems of illative combinatory logic, it might be thought that Hilbert-style PTSs (HPTSs) could be based in a similar way. This paper shows that some PTSs have very trivial equivalent HPTSs, with only the axioms as theorems and that for many PTSs no equivalent HPTS can exist. Most commonly used PTSs belong to these two classes. For some PTSs however, including lambda* and the PTS at the basis of the proof assistant Coq, there is a nontrivial equivalent HPTS, with axioms that are type statements for I, K and S.

We study mechanisms that permit program components to express role constraints on clients, focusing on programmatic security mechanisms, which permit access controls to be expressed, in situ, as part of the code realizing basic functionality. In this setting, two questions immediately arise: (1) The user of a component faces the issue of safety: is a particular role sufficient to use the component? (2) The component designer faces the dual issue of protection: is a particular role demanded in all execution paths of the component? We provide a formal calculus and static analysis to answer both questions.

A fully-automated algorithm is developed able to show that evaluation of a given untyped lambda-expression will terminate under CBV (call-by-value). The ``size-change principle'' from first-order programs is extended to arbitrary untyped lambda-expressions in two steps. The first step suffices to show CBV termination of a single, stand-alone lambda;-expression. The second suffices to show CBV termination of any member of a regular set of lambda-expressions, defined by a tree grammar. (A simple example is a minimum function, when applied to arbitrary Church numerals.) The algorithm is sound and proven so in this paper. The Halting Problem's undecidability implies that any sound algorithm is necessarily incomplete: some lambda-expressions may in fact terminate under CBV evaluation, but not be recognised as terminating. The intensional power of the termination algorithm is reasonably high. It certifies as terminating many interesting and useful general recursive algorithms including programs with mutual recursion and parameter exchanges, and Colson's ``minimum'' algorithm. Further, our type-free approach allows use of the Y combinator, and so can identify as terminating a substantial subset of PCF.

This paper is concerned with the form of typed name binding used by the FreshML family of languages. Its characteristic feature is that a name binding is represented by an abstract (name,value)-pair that may only be deconstructed via the generation of fresh bound names. The paper proves a new result about what operations on names can co-exist with this construct. In FreshML the only observation one can make of names is to test whether or not they are equal. This restricted amount of observation was thought necessary to ensure that there is no observable difference between alpha-equivalent name binders. Yet from an algorithmic point of view it would be desirable to allow other operations and relations on names, such as a total ordering. This paper shows that, contrary to expectations, one may add not just ordering, but almost any relation or numerical function on names without disturbing the fundamental correctness result about this form of typed name binding (that object-level alpha-equivalence precisely corresponds to contextual equivalence at the programming meta-level), so long as one takes the state of dynamically created names into account.

In this paper, we first introduce a lower bound technique for the state complexity of transformations of automata. Namely we suggest first considering the class of full automata in lower bound analysis, and later reducing the size of the large alphabet via alphabet substitutions. Then we apply such technique to the complementation of nondeterministic \omega-automata, and obtain several lower bound results. Particularly, we prove an \omega((0.76n)^n) lower bound for Büchi complementation, which also holds for almost every complementation or determinization transformation of nondeterministic omega-automata, and prove an optimal (\omega(nk))^n lower bound for the complementation of generalized Büchi automata, which holds for Streett automata as well.

A compositional Petri net-based semantics is given to a simple language allowing pointer manipulation and parallelism. The model is then applied to give a notion of validity to the judgements made by concurrent separation logic that emphasizes the process-environment duality inherent in such rely-guarantee reasoning. Soundness of the rules of concurrent separation logic with respect to this definition of validity is shown. The independence information retained by the Petri net model is then exploited to characterize the independence of parallel processes enforced by the logic. This is shown to permit a refinement operation capable of changing the granularity of atomic actions.

We propose an extension of the join calculus with pattern matching on algebraic data types. Our initial motivation is twofold: to provide an intuitive semantics of the interaction between concurrency and pattern matching; to define a practical compilation scheme from extended join definitions into ordinary ones plus ML pattern matching. To assess the correctness of our compilation scheme, we develop a theory of the applied join calculus, a calculus with value passing and value matching. We implement this calculus as an extension of the current JoCaml system.

We show that a special case of the Feferman-Vaught composition theorem gives rise to a natural notion of automata for finite words over an infinite alphabet, with good closure and decidability properties, as well as several logical characterizations. We also consider a slight extension of the Feferman-Vaught formalism which allows to express more relations between component values (such as equality), and prove related decidability results. From this result we get new classes of decidable logics for words over an infinite alphabet.

We introduce `atomic flows': they are graphs obtained from derivations by tracing atom occurrences and forgetting the logical structure. We study simple manipulations of atomic flows that correspond to complex reductions on derivations. This allows us to prove, for propositional logic, a new and very general normalisation theorem, which contains cut elimination as a special case. We operate in deep inference, which is more general than other syntactic paradigms, and where normalisation is more difficult to control. We argue that atomic flows are a significant technical advance for normalisation theory, because 1) the technique they support is largely independent of syntax; 2) indeed, it is largely independent of logical inference rules; 3) they constitute a powerful geometric formalism, which is more intuitive than syntax.