Volume 4, Issue 2


1. Normalization of IZF with Replacement

Moczydlowski, Wojciech.
ZF is a well investigated impredicative constructive version of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory. Using set terms, we axiomatize IZF with Replacement, which we call \izfr, along with its intensional counterpart \iizfr. We define a typed lambda calculus $\li$ corresponding to proofs in \iizfr according to the Curry-Howard isomorphism principle. Using realizability for \iizfr, we show weak normalization of $\li$. We use normalization to prove the disjunction, numerical existence and term existence properties. An inner extensional model is used to show these properties, along with the set existence property, for full, extensional \izfr.

2. Approximating a Behavioural Pseudometric without Discount for<br> Probabilistic Systems

van Breugel, Franck ; Sharma, Babita ; Worrell, James.
Desharnais, Gupta, Jagadeesan and Panangaden introduced a family of behavioural pseudometrics for probabilistic transition systems. These pseudometrics are a quantitative analogue of probabilistic bisimilarity. Distance zero captures probabilistic bisimilarity. Each pseudometric has a discount factor, a real number in the interval (0, 1]. The smaller the discount factor, the more the future is discounted. If the discount factor is one, then the future is not discounted at all. Desharnais et al. showed that the behavioural distances can be calculated up to any desired degree of accuracy if the discount factor is smaller than one. In this paper, we show that the distances can also be approximated if the future is not discounted. A key ingredient of our algorithm is Tarski's decision procedure for the first order theory over real closed fields. By exploiting the Kantorovich-Rubinstein duality theorem we can restrict to the existential fragment for which more efficient decision procedures exist.

3. Semi-continuous Sized Types and Termination

Abel, Andreas.
Some type-based approaches to termination use sized types: an ordinal bound for the size of a data structure is stored in its type. A recursive function over a sized type is accepted if it is visible in the type system that recursive calls occur just at a smaller size. This approach is only sound if the type of the recursive function is admissible, i.e., depends on the size index in a certain way. To explore the space of admissible functions in the presence of higher-kinded data types and impredicative polymorphism, a semantics is developed where sized types are interpreted as functions from ordinals into sets of strongly normalizing terms. It is shown that upper semi-continuity of such functions is a sufficient semantic criterion for admissibility. To provide a syntactical criterion, a calculus for semi-continuous functions is developed.

4. A Distribution Law for CCS and a New Congruence Result for the pi-calculus

Hirschkoff, Daniel ; Pous, Damien.
We give an axiomatisation of strong bisimilarity on a small fragment of CCS that does not feature the sum operator. This axiomatisation is then used to derive congruence of strong bisimilarity in the finite pi-calculus in absence of sum. To our knowledge, this is the only nontrivial subcalculus of the pi-calculus that includes the full output prefix and for which strong bisimilarity is a congruence.

5. A lower bound on web services composition

Muscholl, Anca ; Walukiewicz, Igor.
A web service is modeled here as a finite state machine. A composition problem for web services is to decide if a given web service can be constructed from a given set of web services; where the construction is understood as a simulation of the specification by a fully asynchronous product of the given services. We show an EXPTIME-lower bound for this problem, thus matching the known upper bound. Our result also applies to richer models of web services, such as the Roman model.

6. Relational Parametricity and Separation Logic

Birkedal, Lars ; Yang, Hongseok.
Separation logic is a recent extension of Hoare logic for reasoning about programs with references to shared mutable data structures. In this paper, we provide a new interpretation of the logic for a programming language with higher types. Our interpretation is based on Reynolds's relational parametricity, and it provides a formal connection between separation logic and data abstraction.

7. On the Expressiveness and Complexity of ATL

Laroussinie, Francois ; Markey, Nicolas ; Oreiby, Ghassan.
ATL is a temporal logic geared towards the specification and verification of properties in multi-agents systems. It allows to reason on the existence of strategies for coalitions of agents in order to enforce a given property. In this paper, we first precisely characterize the complexity of ATL model-checking over Alternating Transition Systems and Concurrent Game Structures when the number of agents is not fixed. We prove that it is \Delta^P_2 - and \Delta^P_?_3-complete, depending on the underlying multi-agent model (ATS and CGS resp.). We also consider the same problems for some extensions of ATL. We then consider expressiveness issues. We show how ATS and CGS are related and provide translations between these models w.r.t. alternating bisimulation. We also prove that the standard definition of ATL (built on modalities "Next", "Always" and "Until") cannot express the duals of its modalities: it is necessary to explicitely add the modality "Release".

8. Visibly Tree Automata with Memory and Constraints

Comon-Lundh, Hubert ; Jacquemard, Florent ; Perrin, Nicolas.
Tree automata with one memory have been introduced in 2001. They generalize both pushdown (word) automata and the tree automata with constraints of equality between brothers of Bogaert and Tison. Though it has a decidable emptiness problem, the main weakness of this model is its lack of good closure properties. We propose a generalization of the visibly pushdown automata of Alur and Madhusudan to a family of tree recognizers which carry along their (bottom-up) computation an auxiliary unbounded memory with a tree structure (instead of a symbol stack). In other words, these recognizers, called Visibly Tree Automata with Memory (VTAM) define a subclass of tree automata with one memory enjoying Boolean closure properties. We show in particular that they can be determinized and the problems like emptiness, membership, inclusion and universality are decidable for VTAM. Moreover, we propose several extensions of VTAM whose transitions may be constrained by different kinds of tests between memories and also constraints a la Bogaert and Tison comparing brother subtrees in the tree in input. We show that some of these classes of constrained VTAM keep the good closure and decidability properties, and we demonstrate their expressiveness with relevant examples of tree languages.

9. Model Checking One-clock Priced Timed Automata

Bouyer, Patricia ; Larsen, Kim G. ; Markey, Nicolas.
We consider the model of priced (a.k.a. weighted) timed automata, an extension of timed automata with cost information on both locations and transitions, and we study various model-checking problems for that model based on extensions of classical temporal logics with cost constraints on modalities. We prove that, under the assumption that the model has only one clock, model-checking this class of models against the logic WCTL, CTL with cost-constrained modalities, is PSPACE-complete (while it has been shown undecidable as soon as the model has three clocks). We also prove that model-checking WMTL, LTL with cost-constrained modalities, is decidable only if there is a single clock in the model and a single stopwatch cost variable (i.e., whose slopes lie in {0,1}).