Volume 5, Issue 1


1. The Complexity of Generalized Satisfiability for Linear Temporal Logic

Michael Bauland ; Thomas Schneider ; Henning Schnoor ; Ilka Schnoor ; Heribert Vollmer.
In a seminal paper from 1985, Sistla and Clarke showed that satisfiability for Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) is either NP-complete or PSPACE-complete, depending on the set of temporal operators used. If, in contrast, the set of propositional operators is restricted, the complexity may decrease. This paper undertakes a systematic study of satisfiability for LTL formulae over restricted sets of propositional and temporal operators. Since every propositional operator corresponds to a Boolean function, there exist infinitely many propositional operators. In order to systematically cover all possible sets of them, we use Post's lattice. With its help, we determine the computational complexity of LTL satisfiability for all combinations of temporal operators and all but two classes of propositional functions. Each of these infinitely many problems is shown to be either PSPACE-complete, NP-complete, or in P.

2. Beyond Language Equivalence on Visibly Pushdown Automata

Jiří Srba.
We study (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds for a number of studied preorders and equivalences like simulation, completed simulation, ready simulation, 2-nested simulation preorders/equivalences and bisimulation equivalence. Our main results are that all the mentioned equivalences and preorders are EXPTIME-complete on visibly pushdown automata, PSPACE-complete on visibly one-counter automata and P-complete on visibly BPA. Our PSPACE lower bound for visibly one-counter automata improves also the previously known DP-hardness results for ordinary one-counter automata and one-counter nets. Finally, we study regularity checking problems for visibly pushdown automata and show that they can be decided in polynomial time.

3. The Safe Lambda Calculus

William Blum ; C. -H. Luke Ong.
Safety is a syntactic condition of higher-order grammars that constrains occurrences of variables in the production rules according to their type-theoretic order. In this paper, we introduce the safe lambda calculus, which is obtained by transposing (and generalizing) the safety condition to the setting of the simply-typed lambda calculus. In contrast to the original definition of safety, our calculus does not constrain types (to be homogeneous). We show that in the safe lambda calculus, there is no need to rename bound variables when performing substitution, as variable capture is guaranteed not to happen. We also propose an adequate notion of beta-reduction that preserves safety. In the same vein as Schwichtenberg's 1976 characterization of the simply-typed lambda calculus, we show that the numeric functions representable in the safe lambda calculus are exactly the multivariate polynomials; thus conditional is not definable. We also give a characterization of representable word functions. We then study the complexity of deciding beta-eta equality of two safe simply-typed terms and show that this problem is PSPACE-hard. Finally we give a game-semantic analysis of safety: We show that safe terms are denoted by `P-incrementally justified strategies'. Consequently pointers in the game semantics of safe lambda-terms are only necessary from order 4 onwards.

4. The Complexity of Datalog on Linear Orders

Martin Grohe ; Goetz Schwandtner.
We study the program complexity of datalog on both finite and infinite linear orders. Our main result states that on all linear orders with at least two elements, the nonemptiness problem for datalog is EXPTIME-complete. While containment of the nonemptiness problem in EXPTIME is known for finite linear orders and actually for arbitrary finite structures, it is not obvious for infinite linear orders. It sharply contrasts the situation on other infinite structures; for example, the datalog nonemptiness problem on an infinite successor structure is undecidable. We extend our upper bound results to infinite linear orders with constants. As an application, we show that the datalog nonemptiness problem on Allen's interval algebra is EXPTIME-complete.

5. Antichains for the Automata-Based Approach to Model-Checking

Laurent Doyen ; Jean-Francois Raskin.
We propose and evaluate antichain algorithms to solve the universality and language inclusion problems for nondeterministic Buechi automata, and the emptiness problem for alternating Buechi automata. To obtain those algorithms, we establish the existence of simulation pre-orders that can be exploited to efficiently evaluate fixed points on the automata defined during the complementation step (that we keep implicit in our approach). We evaluate the performance of the algorithm to check the universality of Buechi automata using the random automaton model recently proposed by Tabakov and Vardi. We show that on the difficult instances of this probabilistic model, our algorithm outperforms the standard ones by several orders of magnitude.

6. Cut-Simulation and Impredicativity

Christoph Benzmueller ; Chad E. Brown ; Michael Kohlhase.
We investigate cut-elimination and cut-simulation in impredicative (higher-order) logics. We illustrate that adding simple axioms such as Leibniz equations to a calculus for an impredicative logic -- in our case a sequent calculus for classical type theory -- is like adding cut. The phenomenon equally applies to prominent axioms like Boolean- and functional extensionality, induction, choice, and description. This calls for the development of calculi where these principles are built-in instead of being treated axiomatically.

7. On tiered small jump operators

Jean-Yves Marion.
Predicative analysis of recursion schema is a method to characterize complexity classes like the class FPTIME of polynomial time computable functions. This analysis comes from the works of Bellantoni and Cook, and Leivant by data tiering. Here, we refine predicative analysis by using a ramified Ackermann's construction of a non-primitive recursive function. We obtain a hierarchy of functions which characterizes exactly functions, which are computed in O(n^k) time over register machine model of computation. For this, we introduce a strict ramification principle. Then, we show how to diagonalize in order to obtain an exponential function and to jump outside deterministic polynomial time. Lastly, we suggest a dependent typed lambda-calculus to represent this construction.