Volume 5, Issue 3


1. A Theory of Explicit Substitutions with Safe and Full Composition

Kesner, Delia.
Many different systems with explicit substitutions have been proposed to implement a large class of higher-order languages. Motivations and challenges that guided the development of such calculi in functional frameworks are surveyed in the first part of this paper. Then, very simple technology in named variable-style notation is used to establish a theory of explicit substitutions for the lambda-calculus which enjoys a whole set of useful properties such as full composition, simulation of one-step beta-reduction, preservation of beta-strong normalisation, strong normalisation of typed terms and confluence on metaterms. Normalisation of related calculi is also discussed.

2. Decidability of higher-order matching

Stirling, Colin.
We show that the higher-order matching problem is decidable using a game-theoretic argument.

3. Lindstrom theorems for fragments of first-order logic

van Benthem, Johan ; Cate, Balder ten ; Vaananen, Jouko.
Lindström theorems characterize logics in terms of model-theoretic conditions such as Compactness and the Löwenheim-Skolem property. Most existing characterizations of this kind concern extensions of first-order logic. But on the other hand, many logics relevant to computer science are fragments or extensions of fragments of first-order logic, e.g., k-variable logics and various modal logics. Finding Lindström theorems for these languages can be challenging, as most known techniques rely on coding arguments that seem to require the full expressive power of first-order logic. In this paper, we provide Lindström theorems for several fragments of first-order logic, including the k-variable fragments for k>2, Tarski's relation algebra, graded modal logic, and the binary guarded fragment. We use two different proof techniques. One is a modification of the original Lindström proof. The other involves the modal concepts of bisimulation, tree unraveling, and finite depth. Our results also imply semantic preservation theorems.

4. Structure Theorem and Strict Alternation Hierarchy for FO^2 on Words

Weis, Philipp ; Immerman, Neil.
It is well-known that every first-order property on words is expressible using at most three variables. The subclass of properties expressible with only two variables is also quite interesting and well-studied. We prove precise structure theorems that characterize the exact expressive power of first-order logic with two variables on words. Our results apply to both the case with and without a successor relation. For both languages, our structure theorems show exactly what is expressible using a given quantifier depth, n, and using m blocks of alternating quantifiers, for any m \leq n. Using these characterizations, we prove, among other results, that there is a strict hierarchy of alternating quantifiers for both languages. The question whether there was such a hierarchy had been completely open. As another consequence of our structural results, we show that satisfiability for first-order logic with two variables without successor, which is NEXP-complete in general, becomes NP-complete once we only consider alphabets of a bounded size.

5. Two-Way Unary Temporal Logic over Trees

Bojanczyk, Mikolaj.
We consider a temporal logic EF+F^-1 for unranked, unordered finite trees. The logic has two operators: EF\phi, which says "in some proper descendant \phi holds", and F^-1\phi, which says "in some proper ancestor \phi holds". We present an algorithm for deciding if a regular language of unranked finite trees can be expressed in EF+F^-1. The algorithm uses a characterization expressed in terms of forest algebras.

6. RPO, Second-order Contexts, and Lambda-calculus

Di Gianantonio, Pietro ; Honsell, Furio ; Lenisa, Marina.
First, we extend Leifer-Milner RPO theory, by giving general conditions to obtain IPO labelled transition systems (and bisimilarities) with a reduced set of transitions, and possibly finitely branching. Moreover, we study the weak variant of Leifer-Milner theory, by giving general conditions under which the weak bisimilarity is a congruence. Then, we apply such extended RPO technique to the lambda-calculus, endowed with lazy and call by value reduction strategies. We show that, contrary to process calculi, one can deal directly with the lambda-calculus syntax and apply Leifer-Milner technique to a category of contexts, provided that we work in the framework of weak bisimilarities. However, even in the case of the transition system with minimal contexts, the resulting bisimilarity is infinitely branching, due to the fact that, in standard context categories, parametric rules such as the beta-rule can be represented only by infinitely many ground rules. To overcome this problem, we introduce the general notion of second-order context category. We show that, by carrying out the RPO construction in this setting, the lazy observational equivalence can be captured as a weak bisimilarity equivalence on a finitely branching transition system. This result is achieved by considering an encoding of lambda-calculus in Combinatory Logic.

7. Relational Parametricity for Computational Effects

Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers ; Simpson, Alex.
According to Strachey, a polymorphic program is parametric if it applies a uniform algorithm independently of the type instantiations at which it is applied. The notion of relational parametricity, introduced by Reynolds, is one possible mathematical formulation of this idea. Relational parametricity provides a powerful tool for establishing data abstraction properties, proving equivalences of datatypes, and establishing equalities of programs. Such properties have been well studied in a pure functional setting. Many programs, however, exhibit computational effects, and are not accounted for by the standard theory of relational parametricity. In this paper, we develop a foundational framework for extending the notion of relational parametricity to programming languages with effects.

8. Full abstraction for nominal general references

Tzevelekos, Nikos.
Game semantics has been used with considerable success in formulating fully abstract semantics for languages with higher-order procedures and a wide range of computational effects. Recently, nominal games have been proposed for modelling functional languages with names. These are ordinary, stateful games cast in the theory of nominal sets developed by Pitts and Gabbay. Here we take nominal games one step further, by developing a fully abstract semantics for a language with nominal general references.

9. Representations of Stream Processors Using Nested Fixed Points

Ghani, Neil ; Hancock, Peter ; Pattinson, Dirk.
We define representations of continuous functions on infinite streams of discrete values, both in the case of discrete-valued functions, and in the case of stream-valued functions. We define also an operation on the representations of two continuous functions between streams that yields a representation of their composite. In the case of discrete-valued functions, the representatives are well-founded (finite-path) trees of a certain kind. The underlying idea can be traced back to Brouwer's justification of bar-induction, or to Kreisel and Troelstra's elimination of choice-sequences. In the case of stream-valued functions, the representatives are non-wellfounded trees pieced together in a coinductive fashion from well-founded trees. The definition requires an alternating fixpoint construction of some ubiquity.

10. Applications of Metric Coinduction

Kozen, Dexter ; Ruozzi, Nicholas.
Metric coinduction is a form of coinduction that can be used to establish properties of objects constructed as a limit of finite approximations. One can prove a coinduction step showing that some property is preserved by one step of the approximation process, then automatically infer by the coinduction principle that the property holds of the limit object. This can often be used to avoid complicated analytic arguments involving limits and convergence, replacing them with simpler algebraic arguments. This paper examines the application of this principle in a variety of areas, including infinite streams, Markov chains, Markov decision processes, and non-well-founded sets. These results point to the usefulness of coinduction as a general proof technique.

11. A rich hierarchy of functionals of finite types

Normann, Dag.
We are considering typed hierarchies of total, continuous functionals using complete, separable metric spaces at the base types. We pay special attention to the so called Urysohn space constructed by P. Urysohn. One of the properties of the Urysohn space is that every other separable metric space can be isometrically embedded into it. We discuss why the Urysohn space may be considered as the universal model of possibly infinitary outputs of algorithms. The main result is that all our typed hierarchies may be topologically embedded, type by type, into the corresponding hierarchy over the Urysohn space. As a preparation for this, we prove an effective density theorem that is also of independent interest.