2010

This paper is a sequel to arXiv:0902.2355 and continues the study of quantum logic via dagger kernel categories. It develops the relation between these categories and both orthomodular lattices and Foulis semigroups. The relation between the latter two notions has been uncovered in the 1960s. The current categorical perspective gives a broader context and reconstructs this relationship between orthomodular lattices and Foulis semigroups as special instance.

We compare classes of finite relational structures via monadic second-order transductions. More precisely, we study the preorder where we set C \subseteq K if, and only if, there exists a transduction {\tau} such that C\subseteq{\tau}(K). If we only consider classes of incidence structures we can completely describe the resulting hierarchy. It is linear of order type {\omega}+3. Each level can be characterised in terms of a suitable variant of tree-width. Canonical representatives of the various levels are: the class of all trees of height n, for each n \in N, of all paths, of all trees, and of all grids.

We study simple type theory with primitive equality (STT) and its first-order fragment EFO, which restricts equality and quantification to base types but retains lambda abstraction and higher-order variables. As deductive system we employ a cut-free tableau calculus. We consider completeness, compactness, and existence of countable models. We prove these properties for STT with respect to Henkin models and for EFO with respect to standard models. We also show that the tableau system yields a decision procedure for three EFO fragments.

Association rules are among the most widely employed data analysis methods in the field of Data Mining. An association rule is a form of partial implication between two sets of binary variables. In the most common approach, association rules are parameterized by a lower bound on their confidence, which is the empirical conditional probability of their consequent given the antecedent, and/or by some other parameter bounds such as "support" or deviation from independence. We study here notions of redundancy among association rules from a fundamental perspective. We see each transaction in a dataset as an interpretation (or model) in the propositional logic sense, and consider existing notions of redundancy, that is, of logical entailment, among association rules, of the form "any dataset in which this first rule holds must obey also that second rule, therefore the second is redundant". We discuss several existing alternative definitions of redundancy between association rules and provide new characterizations and relationships among them. We show that the main alternatives we discuss correspond actually to just two variants, which differ in the treatment of full-confidence implications. For each of these two notions of redundancy, we provide a sound and complete deduction calculus, and we show how to construct complete bases (that is, axiomatizations) of absolutely minimum size in terms of the number of rules. We explore finally an approach to redundancy […]

We define two transformations from term rewriting systems (TRSs) to context-sensitive TRSs in such a way that termination of the target system implies outermost termination of the original system. In the transformation based on 'context extension', each outermost rewrite step is modeled by exactly one step in the transformed system. This transformation turns out to be complete for the class of left-linear TRSs. The second transformation is called `dynamic labeling' and results in smaller sized context-sensitive TRSs. Here each modeled step is adjoined with a small number of auxiliary steps. As a result state-of-the-art termination methods for context-sensitive rewriting become available for proving termination of outermost rewriting. Both transformations have been implemented in Jambox, making it the most successful tool in the category of outermost rewriting of the last edition of the annual termination competition.