Volume 8, Issue 2


1. Extended Initiality for Typed Abstract Syntax

Benedikt Ahrens.
Initial Semantics aims at interpreting the syntax associated to a signature as the initial object of some category of 'models', yielding induction and recursion principles for abstract syntax. Zsidó proves an initiality result for simply-typed syntax: given a signature S, the abstract syntax associated to S constitutes the initial object in a category of models of S in monads. However, the iteration principle her theorem provides only accounts for translations between two languages over a fixed set of object types. We generalize Zsidó's notion of model such that object types may vary, yielding a larger category, while preserving initiality of the syntax therein. Thus we obtain an extended initiality theorem for typed abstract syntax, in which translations between terms over different types can be specified via the associated category-theoretic iteration operator as an initial morphism. Our definitions ensure that translations specified via initiality are type-safe, i.e. compatible with the typing in the source and target language in the obvious sense. Our main example is given via the propositions-as-types paradigm: we specify propositions and inference rules of classical and intuitionistic propositional logics through their respective typed signatures. Afterwards we use the category--theoretic iteration operator to specify a double negation translation from the former to the latter. A second example is given by the signature of PCF. For this particular case, we formalize […]

2. Barriers in Concurrent Separation Logic: Now With Tool Support!

Aquinas Hobor ; Cristian Gherghina.
We develop and prove sound a concurrent separation logic for Pthreads-style barriers. Although Pthreads barriers are widely used in systems, and separation logic is widely used for verification, there has not been any effort to combine the two. Unlike locks and critical sections, Pthreads barriers enable simultaneous resource redistribution between multiple threads and are inherently stateful, leading to significant complications in the design of the logic and its soundness proof. We show how our logic can be applied to a specific example program in a modular way. Our proofs are machine-checked in Coq. We showcase a program verification toolset that automatically applies the logic rules and discharges the associated proof obligations.

3. Intuitionistic implication makes model checking hard

Martin Mundhenk ; Felix Weiss.
We investigate the complexity of the model checking problem for intuitionistic and modal propositional logics over transitive Kripke models. More specific, we consider intuitionistic logic IPC, basic propositional logic BPL, formal propositional logic FPL, and Jankov's logic KC. We show that the model checking problem is P-complete for the implicational fragments of all these intuitionistic logics. For BPL and FPL we reach P-hardness even on the implicational fragment with only one variable. The same hardness results are obtained for the strictly implicational fragments of their modal companions. Moreover, we investigate whether formulas with less variables and additional connectives make model checking easier. Whereas for variable free formulas outside of the implicational fragment, FPL model checking is shown to be in LOGCFL, the problem remains P-complete for BPL.

4. Quantifier-Free Interpolation of a Theory of Arrays

Roberto Bruttomesso ; Silvio Ghilardi ; Silvio Ranise.
The use of interpolants in model checking is becoming an enabling technology to allow fast and robust verification of hardware and software. The application of encodings based on the theory of arrays, however, is limited by the impossibility of deriving quantifier- free interpolants in general. In this paper, we show that it is possible to obtain quantifier-free interpolants for a Skolemized version of the extensional theory of arrays. We prove this in two ways: (1) non-constructively, by using the model theoretic notion of amalgamation, which is known to be equivalent to admit quantifier-free interpolation for universal theories; and (2) constructively, by designing an interpolating procedure, based on solving equations between array updates. (Interestingly, rewriting techniques are used in the key steps of the solver and its proof of correctness.) To the best of our knowledge, this is the first successful attempt of computing quantifier- free interpolants for a variant of the theory of arrays with extensionality.

5. Secure the Clones

Thomas Jensen ; Florent Kirchner ; David Pichardie.
Exchanging mutable data objects with untrusted code is a delicate matter because of the risk of creating a data space that is accessible by an attacker. Consequently, secure programming guidelines for Java stress the importance of using defensive copying before accepting or handing out references to an internal mutable object. However, implementation of a copy method (like clone()) is entirely left to the programmer. It may not provide a sufficiently deep copy of an object and is subject to overriding by a malicious sub-class. Currently no language-based mechanism supports secure object cloning. This paper proposes a type-based annotation system for defining modular copy policies for class-based object-oriented programs. A copy policy specifies the maximally allowed sharing between an object and its clone. We present a static enforcement mechanism that will guarantee that all classes fulfil their copy policy, even in the presence of overriding of copy methods, and establish the semantic correctness of the overall approach in Coq. The mechanism has been implemented and experimentally evaluated on clone methods from several Java libraries.

6. Modes of Convergence for Term Graph Rewriting

Patrick Bahr.
Term graph rewriting provides a simple mechanism to finitely represent restricted forms of infinitary term rewriting. The correspondence between infinitary term rewriting and term graph rewriting has been studied to some extent. However, this endeavour is impaired by the lack of an appropriate counterpart of infinitary rewriting on the side of term graphs. We aim to fill this gap by devising two modes of convergence based on a partial order respectively a metric on term graphs. The thus obtained structures generalise corresponding modes of convergence that are usually studied in infinitary term rewriting. We argue that this yields a common framework in which both term rewriting and term graph rewriting can be studied. In order to substantiate our claim, we compare convergence on term graphs and on terms. In particular, we show that the modes of convergence on term graphs are conservative extensions of the corresponding modes of convergence on terms and are preserved under unravelling term graphs to terms. Moreover, we show that many of the properties known from infinitary term rewriting are preserved. This includes the intrinsic completeness of both modes of convergence and the fact that convergence via the partial order is a conservative extension of the metric convergence.

7. On the equivalence of game and denotational semantics for the probabilistic mu-calculus

Matteo Mio.
The probabilistic (or quantitative) modal mu-calculus is a fixed-point logic de- signed for expressing properties of probabilistic labeled transition systems (PLTS). Two semantics have been studied for this logic, both assigning to every process state a value in the interval [0,1] representing the probability that the property expressed by the formula holds at the state. One semantics is denotational and the other is a game semantics, specified in terms of two-player stochastic games. The two semantics have been proved to coincide on all finite PLTS's, but the equivalence of the two semantics on arbitrary models has been open in literature. In this paper we prove that the equivalence indeed holds for arbitrary infinite models, and thus our result strengthens the fruitful connection between denotational and game semantics. Our proof adapts the unraveling or unfolding method, a general proof technique for proving result of parity games by induction on their complexity.

8. Width and size of regular resolution proofs

Alasdair Urquhart.
This paper discusses the topic of the minimum width of a regular resolution refutation of a set of clauses. The main result shows that there are examples having small regular resolution refutations, for which any regular refutation must contain a large clause. This forms a contrast with corresponding results for general resolution refutations.

9. Refining Inductive Types

Robert Atkey ; Patricia Johann ; Neil Ghani.
Dependently typed programming languages allow sophisticated properties of data to be expressed within the type system. Of particular use in dependently typed programming are indexed types that refine data by computationally useful information. For example, the N-indexed type of vectors refines lists by their lengths. Other data types may be refined in similar ways, but programmers must produce purpose-specific refinements on an ad hoc basis, developers must anticipate which refinements to include in libraries, and implementations must often store redundant information about data and their refinements. In this paper we show how to generically derive inductive characterisations of refinements of inductive types, and argue that these characterisations can alleviate some of the aforementioned difficulties associated with ad hoc refinements. Our characterisations also ensure that standard techniques for programming with and reasoning about inductive types are applicable to refinements, and that refinements can themselves be further refined.

10. Dynamic Dependency Pairs for Algebraic Functional Systems

Cynthia Kop ; Femke van Raamsdonk.
We extend the higher-order termination method of dynamic dependency pairs to Algebraic Functional Systems (AFSs). In this setting, simply typed lambda-terms with algebraic reduction and separate {\beta}-steps are considered. For left-linear AFSs, the method is shown to be complete. For so-called local AFSs we define a variation of usable rules and an extension of argument filterings. All these techniques have been implemented in the higher-order termination tool WANDA.

11. Model Checking Vector Addition Systems with one zero-test

Rémi Bonnet ; Alain FInkel ; Jérôme Leroux ; Marc Zeitoun.
We design a variation of the Karp-Miller algorithm to compute, in a forward manner, a finite representation of the cover (i.e., the downward closure of the reachability set) of a vector addition system with one zero-test. This algorithm yields decision procedures for several problems for these systems, open until now, such as place-boundedness or LTL model-checking. The proof techniques to handle the zero-test are based on two new notions of cover: the refined and the filtered cover. The refined cover is a hybrid between the reachability set and the classical cover. It inherits properties of the reachability set: equality of two refined covers is undecidable, even for usual Vector Addition Systems (with no zero-test), but the refined cover of a Vector Addition System is a recursive set. The second notion of cover, called the filtered cover, is the central tool of our algorithms. It inherits properties of the classical cover, and in particular, one can effectively compute a finite representation of this set, even for Vector Addition Systems with one zero-test.

12. Generic Fibrational Induction

Neil Ghani ; Patricia Johann ; Clement Fumex.
This paper provides an induction rule that can be used to prove properties of data structures whose types are inductive, i.e., are carriers of initial algebras of functors. Our results are semantic in nature and are inspired by Hermida and Jacobs' elegant algebraic formulation of induction for polynomial data types. Our contribution is to derive, under slightly different assumptions, a sound induction rule that is generic over all inductive types, polynomial or not. Our induction rule is generic over the kinds of properties to be proved as well: like Hermida and Jacobs, we work in a general fibrational setting and so can accommodate very general notions of properties on inductive types rather than just those of a particular syntactic form. We establish the soundness of our generic induction rule by reducing induction to iteration. We then show how our generic induction rule can be instantiated to give induction rules for the data types of rose trees, finite hereditary sets, and hyperfunctions. The first of these lies outside the scope of Hermida and Jacobs' work because it is not polynomial, and as far as we are aware, no induction rules have been known to exist for the second and third in a general fibrational framework. Our instantiation for hyperfunctions underscores the value of working in the general fibrational setting since this data type cannot be interpreted as a set.

13. Untyping Typed Algebras and Colouring Cyclic Linear Logic

Damien Pous.
We prove "untyping" theorems: in some typed theories (semirings, Kleene algebras, residuated lattices, involutive residuated lattices), typed equations can be derived from the underlying untyped equations. As a consequence, the corresponding untyped decision procedures can be extended for free to the typed settings. Some of these theorems are obtained via a detour through fragments of cyclic linear logic, and give rise to a substantial optimisation of standard proof search algorithms.

14. General Bindings and Alpha-Equivalence in Nominal Isabelle

Christian Urban ; Cezary Kaliszyk.
Nominal Isabelle is a definitional extension of the Isabelle/HOL theorem prover. It provides a proving infrastructure for reasoning about programming language calculi involving named bound variables (as opposed to de-Bruijn indices). In this paper we present an extension of Nominal Isabelle for dealing with general bindings, that means term constructors where multiple variables are bound at once. Such general bindings are ubiquitous in programming language research and only very poorly supported with single binders, such as lambda-abstractions. Our extension includes new definitions of alpha-equivalence and establishes automatically the reasoning infrastructure for alpha-equated terms. We also prove strong induction principles that have the usual variable convention already built in.

15. Precompact Apartness Spaces

Douglas S Bridges.
We present a notion of precompactness, and study some of its properties, in the context of apartness spaces whose apartness structure is not necessarily induced by any uniform one. The presentation lies entirely with a Bishop-style constructive framework, and is a contribution to the ongoing development of the constructive theories of apartness and uniformity.

16. Generalized Craig Interpolation for Stochastic Boolean Satisfiability Problems with Applications to Probabilistic State Reachability and Region Stability

Tino Teige ; Martin Fränzle.
The stochastic Boolean satisfiability (SSAT) problem has been introduced by Papadimitriou in 1985 when adding a probabilistic model of uncertainty to propositional satisfiability through randomized quantification. SSAT has many applications, among them probabilistic bounded model checking (PBMC) of symbolically represented Markov decision processes. This article identifies a notion of Craig interpolant for the SSAT framework and develops an algorithm for computing such interpolants based on a resolution calculus for SSAT. As a potential application area of this novel concept of Craig interpolation, we address the symbolic analysis of probabilistic systems. We first investigate the use of interpolation in probabilistic state reachability analysis, turning the falsification procedure employing PBMC into a verification technique for probabilistic safety properties. We furthermore propose an interpolation-based approach to probabilistic region stability, being able to verify that the probability of stabilizing within some region is sufficiently large.

17. Efficient CSL Model Checking Using Stratification

Lijun Zhang ; David N. Jansen ; Flemming Nielson ; Holger Hermanns.
For continuous-time Markov chains, the model-checking problem with respect to continuous-time stochastic logic (CSL) has been introduced and shown to be decidable by Aziz, Sanwal, Singhal and Brayton in 1996. Their proof can be turned into an approximation algorithm with worse than exponential complexity. In 2000, Baier, Haverkort, Hermanns and Katoen presented an efficient polynomial-time approximation algorithm for the sublogic in which only binary until is allowed. In this paper, we propose such an efficient polynomial-time approximation algorithm for full CSL. The key to our method is the notion of stratified CTMCs with respect to the CSL property to be checked. On a stratified CTMC, the probability to satisfy a CSL path formula can be approximated by a transient analysis in polynomial time (using uniformization). We present a measure-preserving, linear-time and -space transformation of any CTMC into an equivalent, stratified one. This makes the present work the centerpiece of a broadly applicable full CSL model checker. Recently, the decision algorithm by Aziz et al. was shown to work only for stratified CTMCs. As an additional contribution, our measure-preserving transformation can be used to ensure the decidability for general CTMCs.

18. Software Model Checking with Explicit Scheduler and Symbolic Threads

Alessandro Cimatti ; Iman Narasamdya ; Marco Roveri.
In many practical application domains, the software is organized into a set of threads, whose activation is exclusive and controlled by a cooperative scheduling policy: threads execute, without any interruption, until they either terminate or yield the control explicitly to the scheduler. The formal verification of such software poses significant challenges. On the one side, each thread may have infinite state space, and might call for abstraction. On the other side, the scheduling policy is often important for correctness, and an approach based on abstracting the scheduler may result in loss of precision and false positives. Unfortunately, the translation of the problem into a purely sequential software model checking problem turns out to be highly inefficient for the available technologies. We propose a software model checking technique that exploits the intrinsic structure of these programs. Each thread is translated into a separate sequential program and explored symbolically with lazy abstraction, while the overall verification is orchestrated by the direct execution of the scheduler. The approach is optimized by filtering the exploration of the scheduler with the integration of partial-order reduction. The technique, called ESST (Explicit Scheduler, Symbolic Threads) has been implemented and experimentally evaluated on a significant set of benchmarks. The results demonstrate that ESST technique is way more effective than software model checking applied to the […]