Volume 10, Issue 4


1. Connection Matrices and the Definability of Graph Parameters

Tomer Kotek ; Johann A. Makowsky.
In this paper we extend and prove in detail the Finite Rank Theorem for connection matrices of graph parameters definable in Monadic Second Order Logic with counting (CMSOL) from B. Godlin, T. Kotek and J.A. Makowsky (2008) and J.A. Makowsky (2009). We demonstrate its vast applicability in simplifying known and new non-definability results of graph properties and finding new non-definability results for graph parameters. We also prove a Feferman-Vaught Theorem for the logic CFOL, First Order Logic with the modular counting quantifiers.

2. Full abstraction for fair testing in CCS (expanded version)

Tom Hirschowitz.
In previous work with Pous, we defined a semantics for CCS which may both be viewed as an innocent form of presheaf semantics and as a concurrent form of game semantics. We define in this setting an analogue of fair testing equivalence, which we prove fully abstract w.r.t. standard fair testing equivalence. The proof relies on a new algebraic notion called playground, which represents the `rule of the game'. From any playground, we derive two languages equipped with labelled transition systems, as well as a strong, functional bisimulation between them.

3. On the strictness of the quantifier structure hierarchy in first-order logic

Yuguo He.
We study a natural hierarchy in first-order logic, namely the quantifier structure hierarchy, which gives a systematic classification of first-order formulas based on structural quantifier resource. We define a variant of Ehrenfeucht-Fraisse games that characterizes quantifier classes and use it to prove that this hierarchy is strict over finite structures, using strategy compositions. Moreover, we prove that this hierarchy is strict even over ordered finite structures, which is interesting in the context of descriptive complexity.

4. The Power of Priority Channel Systems

Christoph Haase ; Sylvain Schmitz ; Philippe Schnoebelen.
We introduce Priority Channel Systems, a new class of channel systems where messages carry a numeric priority and where higher-priority messages can supersede lower-priority messages preceding them in the fifo communication buffers. The decidability of safety and inevitability properties is shown via the introduction of a priority embedding, a well-quasi-ordering that has not previously been used in well-structured systems. We then show how Priority Channel Systems can compute Fast-Growing functions and prove that the aforementioned verification problems are $\mathbf{F}_{\varepsilon_{0}}$-complete.

5. Decidability Problems for Actor Systems

Frank De Boer ; Mahdi Jaghoori ; Cosimo Laneve ; Gianluigi Zavattaro.
We introduce a nominal actor-based language and study its expressive power. We have identified the presence/absence of fields as a crucial feature: the dynamic creation of names in combination with fields gives rise to Turing completeness. On the other hand, restricting to stateless actors gives rise to systems for which properties such as termination are decidable. This decidability result still holds for actors with states when the number of actors is bounded and the state is read-only.

6. Stochastic Timed Automata

Nathalie Bertrand ; Patricia Bouyer ; Thomas Brihaye ; Quentin Menet ; Christel Baier ; Marcus Groesser ; Marcin Jurdzinski.
A stochastic timed automaton is a purely stochastic process defined on a timed automaton, in which both delays and discrete choices are made randomly. We study the almost-sure model-checking problem for this model, that is, given a stochastic timed automaton A and a property $\Phi$, we want to decide whether A satisfies $\Phi$ with probability 1. In this paper, we identify several classes of automata and of properties for which this can be decided. The proof relies on the construction of a finite abstraction, called the thick graph, that we interpret as a finite Markov chain, and for which we can decide the almost-sure model-checking problem. Correctness of the abstraction holds when automata are almost-surely fair, which we show, is the case for two large classes of systems, single- clock automata and so-called weak-reactive automata. Techniques employed in this article gather tools from real-time verification and probabilistic verification, as well as topological games played on timed automata.

7. Computing a Solution of Feigenbaum's Functional Equation in Polynomial Time

Peter Hertling ; Christoph Spandl.
Lanford has shown that Feigenbaum's functional equation has an analytic solution. We show that this solution is a polynomial time computable function. This implies in particular that the so-called first Feigenbaum constant is a polynomial time computable real number.

8. Call-by-value, call-by-name and the vectorial behaviour of the algebraic \lambda-calculus

Ali Assaf ; Alejandro Díaz-Caro ; Simon Perdrix ; Christine Tasson ; Benoî t Valiron.
We examine the relationship between the algebraic lambda-calculus, a fragment of the differential lambda-calculus and the linear-algebraic lambda-calculus, a candidate lambda-calculus for quantum computation. Both calculi are algebraic: each one is equipped with an additive and a scalar-multiplicative structure, and their set of terms is closed under linear combinations. However, the two languages were built using different approaches: the former is a call-by-name language whereas the latter is call-by-value; the former considers algebraic equalities whereas the latter approaches them through rewrite rules. In this paper, we analyse how these different approaches relate to one another. To this end, we propose four canonical languages based on each of the possible choices: call-by-name versus call-by-value, algebraic equality versus algebraic rewriting. We show that the various languages simulate one another. Due to subtle interaction between beta-reduction and algebraic rewriting, to make the languages consistent some additional hypotheses such as confluence or normalisation might be required. We carefully devise the required properties for each proof, making them general enough to be valid for any sub-language satisfying the corresponding properties.

9. An Effect System for Algebraic Effects and Handlers

Andrej Bauer ; Matija Pretnar.
We present an effect system for core Eff, a simplified variant of Eff, which is an ML-style programming language with first-class algebraic effects and handlers. We define an expressive effect system and prove safety of operational semantics with respect to it. Then we give a domain-theoretic denotational semantics of core Eff, using Pitts's theory of minimal invariant relations, and prove it adequate. We use this fact to develop tools for finding useful contextual equivalences, including an induction principle. To demonstrate their usefulness, we use these tools to derive the usual equations for mutable state, including a general commutativity law for computations using non-interfering references. We have formalized the effect system, the operational semantics, and the safety theorem in Twelf.

10. On the Relation of Interaction Semantics to Continuations and Defunctionalization

Ulrich Schöpp.
In game semantics and related approaches to programming language semantics, programs are modelled by interaction dialogues. Such models have recently been used in the design of new compilation methods, e.g. for hardware synthesis or for programming with sublinear space. This paper relates such semantically motivated non-standard compilation methods to more standard techniques in the compilation of functional programming languages, namely continuation passing and defunctionalization. We first show for the linear {\lambda}-calculus that interpretation in a model of computation by interaction can be described as a call-by-name CPS-translation followed by a defunctionalization procedure that takes into account control-flow information. We then establish a relation between these two compilation methods for the simply-typed {\lambda}-calculus and end by considering recursion.

11. Cost Preserving Bisimulations for Probabilistic Automata

Andrea Turrini ; Holger Hermanns.
Probabilistic automata constitute a versatile and elegant model for concurrent probabilistic systems. They are equipped with a compositional theory supporting abstraction, enabled by weak probabilistic bisimulation serving as the reference notion for summarising the effect of abstraction. This paper considers probabilistic automata augmented with costs. It extends the notions of weak transitions in probabilistic automata in such a way that the costs incurred along a weak transition are captured. This gives rise to cost-preserving and cost-bounding variations of weak probabilistic bisimilarity, for which we establish compositionality properties with respect to parallel composition. Furthermore, polynomial-time decision algorithms are proposed, that can be effectively used to compute reward-bounding abstractions of Markov decision processes in a compositional manner.

12. Algorithmic randomness for Doob's martingale convergence theorem in continuous time

Bjørn Kjos-Hanssen ; Paul Kim Long V. Nguyen ; Jason Rute.
We study Doob's martingale convergence theorem for computable continuous time martingales on Brownian motion, in the context of algorithmic randomness. A characterization of the class of sample points for which the theorem holds is given. Such points are given the name of Doob random points. It is shown that a point is Doob random if its tail is computably random in a certain sense. Moreover, Doob randomness is strictly weaker than computable randomness and is incomparable with Schnorr randomness.

13. State of Büchi Complementation

Ming-Hsien Tsai ; Seth Fogarty ; Moshe Y. Vardi ; Yih-Kuen Tsay.
Complementation of Büchi automata has been studied for over five decades since the formalism was introduced in 1960. Known complementation constructions can be classified into Ramsey-based, determinization-based, rank-based, and slice-based approaches. Regarding the performance of these approaches, there have been several complexity analyses but very few experimental results. What especially lacks is a comparative experiment on all of the four approaches to see how they perform in practice. In this paper, we review the four approaches, propose several optimization heuristics, and perform comparative experimentation on four representative constructions that are considered the most efficient in each approach. The experimental results show that (1) the determinization-based Safra-Piterman construction outperforms the other three in producing smaller complements and finishing more tasks in the allocated time and (2) the proposed heuristics substantially improve the Safra-Piterman and the slice-based constructions.

14. Beyond Q-Resolution and Prenex Form: A Proof System for Quantified Constraint Satisfaction

Hubie Chen.
We consider the quantified constraint satisfaction problem (QCSP) which is to decide, given a structure and a first-order sentence (not assumed here to be in prenex form) built from conjunction and quantification, whether or not the sentence is true on the structure. We present a proof system for certifying the falsity of QCSP instances and develop its basic theory; for instance, we provide an algorithmic interpretation of its behavior. Our proof system places the established Q-resolution proof system in a broader context, and also allows us to derive QCSP tractability results.

15. Sub-computable Boundedness Randomness

Sam Buss ; Douglas Cenzer ; Jeffrey B. Remmel.
This paper defines a new notion of bounded computable randomness for certain classes of sub-computable functions which lack a universal machine. In particular, we define such versions of randomness for primitive recursive functions and for PSPACE functions. These new notions are robust in that there are equivalent formulations in terms of (1) Martin-Löf tests, (2) Kolmogorov complexity, and (3) martingales. We show these notions can be equivalently defined with prefix-free Kolmogorov complexity. We prove that one direction of van Lambalgen's theorem holds for relative computability, but the other direction fails. We discuss statistical properties of these notions of randomness.

16. Bounded variation and the strength of Helly's selection theorem

Alexander P. Kreuzer.
We analyze the strength of Helly's selection theorem HST, which is the most important compactness theorem on the space of functions of bounded variation. For this we utilize a new representation of this space intermediate between $L_1$ and the Sobolev space W1,1, compatible with the, so called, weak* topology. We obtain that HST is instance-wise equivalent to the Bolzano-Weierstra\ss\ principle over RCA0. With this HST is equivalent to ACA0 over RCA0. A similar classification is obtained in the Weihrauch lattice.

17. Quantified CTL: Expressiveness and Complexity

François Laroussinie ; Nicolas Markey.
While it was defined long ago, the extension of CTL with quantification over atomic propositions has never been studied extensively. Considering two different semantics (depending whether propositional quantification refers to the Kripke structure or to its unwinding tree), we study its expressiveness (showing in particular that QCTL coincides with Monadic Second-Order Logic for both semantics) and characterise the complexity of its model-checking and satisfiability problems, depending on the number of nested propositional quantifiers (showing that the structure semantics populates the polynomial hierarchy while the tree semantics populates the exponential hierarchy).

18. Global semantic typing for inductive and coinductive computing

Daniel M Leivant.
Inductive and coinductive types are commonly construed as ontological (Church-style) types, denoting canonical data-sets such as natural numbers, lists, and streams. For various purposes, notably the study of programs in the context of global semantics, it is preferable to think of types as semantical properties (Curry-style). Intrinsic theories were introduced in the late 1990s to provide a purely logical framework for reasoning about programs and their semantic types. We extend them here to data given by any combination of inductive and coinductive definitions. This approach is of interest because it fits tightly with syntactic, semantic, and proof theoretic fundamentals of formal logic, with potential applications in implicit computational complexity as well as extraction of programs from proofs. We prove a Canonicity Theorem, showing that the global definition of program typing, via the usual (Tarskian) semantics of first-order logic, agrees with their operational semantics in the intended model. Finally, we show that every intrinsic theory is interpretable in a conservative extension of first-order arithmetic. This means that quantification over infinite data objects does not lead, on its own, to proof-theoretic strength beyond that of Peano Arithmetic. Intrinsic theories are perfectly amenable to formulas-as-types Curry-Howard morphisms, and were used to characterize major computational complexity classes Their extensions described here have similar potential which […]

19. A Robust Class of Data Languages and an Application to Learning

Benedikt Bollig ; Peter Habermehl ; Martin Leucker ; Benjamin Monmege.
We introduce session automata, an automata model to process data words, i.e., words over an infinite alphabet. Session automata support the notion of fresh data values, which are well suited for modeling protocols in which sessions using fresh values are of major interest, like in security protocols or ad-hoc networks. Session automata have an expressiveness partly extending, partly reducing that of classical register automata. We show that, unlike register automata and their various extensions, session automata are robust: They (i) are closed under intersection, union, and (resource-sensitive) complementation, (ii) admit a symbolic regular representation, (iii) have a decidable inclusion problem (unlike register automata), and (iv) enjoy logical characterizations. Using these results, we establish a learning algorithm to infer session automata through membership and equivalence queries.

20. Globally Governed Session Semantics

Dimitrios Kouzapas ; Nobuko Yoshida.
This paper proposes a bisimulation theory based on multiparty session types where a choreography specification governs the behaviour of session typed processes and their observer. The bisimulation is defined with the observer cooperating with the observed process in order to form complete global session scenarios and usable for proving correctness of optimisations for globally coordinating threads and processes. The induced bisimulation is strictly more fine-grained than the standard session bisimulation. The difference between the governed and standard bisimulations only appears when more than two interleaved multiparty sessions exist. This distinct feature enables to reason real scenarios in the large-scale distributed system where multiple choreographic sessions need to be interleaved. The compositionality of the governed bisimilarity is proved through the soundness and completeness with respect to the governed reduction-based congruence. Finally, its usage is demonstrated by a thread transformation governed under multiple sessions in a real usecase in the large-scale cyberinfrustracture.

21. Stochastic Parity Games on Lossy Channel Systems

Parosh Aziz Abdulla ; Lorenzo Clemente ; Richard Mayr ; Sven Sandberg.
We give an algorithm for solving stochastic parity games with almost-sure winning conditions on {\it lossy channel systems}, under the constraint that both players are restricted to finite-memory strategies. First, we describe a general framework, where we consider the class of 2 1/2-player games with almost-sure parity winning conditions on possibly infinite game graphs, assuming that the game contains a {\it finite attractor}. An attractor is a set of states (not necessarily absorbing) that is almost surely re-visited regardless of the players' decisions. We present a scheme that characterizes the set of winning states for each player. Then, we instantiate this scheme to obtain an algorithm for {\it stochastic game lossy channel systems}.