Fifteenth International Conference on "Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems TACAS 2009"

1. Context-Bounded Analysis For Concurrent Programs With Dynamic Creation of Threads

Mohamed Faouzi Atig ; Ahmed Bouajjani ; Shaz Qadeer.
Context-bounded analysis has been shown to be both efficient and effective at finding bugs in concurrent programs. According to its original definition, context-bounded analysis explores all behaviors of a concurrent program up to some fixed number of context switches between threads. This definition is inadequate for programs that create threads dynamically because bounding the number of context switches in a computation also bounds the number of threads involved in the computation. In this paper, we propose a more general definition of context-bounded analysis useful for programs with dynamic thread creation. The idea is to bound the number of context switches for each thread instead of bounding the number of switches of all threads. We consider several variants based on this new definition, and we establish decidability and complexity results for the analysis induced by them.

2. Ground interpolation for the theory of equality

Alexander Fuchs ; Amit Goel ; Jim Grundy ; Sava Krstić ; Cesare Tinelli.
Theory interpolation has found several successful applications in model checking. We present a novel method for computing interpolants for ground formulas in the theory of equality. The method produces interpolants from colored congruence graphs representing derivations in that theory. These graphs can be produced by conventional congruence closure algorithms in a straightforward manner. By working with graphs, rather than at the level of individual proof steps, we are able to derive interpolants that are pleasingly simple (conjunctions of Horn clauses) and smaller than those generated by other tools. Our interpolation method can be seen as a theory-specific implementation of a cooperative interpolation game between two provers. We present a generic version of the interpolation game, parametrized by the theory T, and define a general method to extract runs of the game from proofs in T and then generate interpolants from these runs.

3. Semantics and Algorithms for Parametric Monitoring

Grigore Rosu ; Feng Chen.
Analysis of execution traces plays a fundamental role in many program analysis approaches, such as runtime verification, testing, monitoring, and specification mining. Execution traces are frequently parametric, i.e., they contain events with parameter bindings. Each parametric trace usually consists of many meaningful trace slices merged together, each slice corresponding to one parameter binding. This gives a semantics-based solution to parametric trace analysis. A general-purpose parametric trace slicing technique is introduced, which takes each event in the parametric trace and dispatches it to its corresponding trace slices. This parametric trace slicing technique can be used in combination with any conventional, non-parametric trace analysis technique, by applying the later on each trace slice. As an instance, a parametric property monitoring technique is then presented. The presented parametric trace slicing and monitoring techniques have been implemented and extensively evaluated. Measurements of runtime overhead confirm that the generality of the discussed techniques does not come at a performance expense when compared with existing parametric trace monitoring systems.

4. Büchi Complementation and Size-Change Termination

Seth Fogarty ; Moshe Y. Vardi.
We compare tools for complementing nondeterministic Büchi automata with a recent termination-analysis algorithm. Complementation of Büchi automata is a key step in program verification. Early constructions using a Ramsey-based argument have been supplanted by rank-based constructions with exponentially better bounds. In 2001 Lee et al. presented the size-change termination (SCT) problem, along with both a reduction to Büchi automata and a Ramsey-based algorithm. The Ramsey-based algorithm was presented as a more practical alternative to the automata-theoretic approach, but strongly resembles the initial complementation constructions for Büchi automata. We prove that the SCT algorithm is a specialized realization of the Ramsey-based complementation construction. To do so, we extend the Ramsey-based complementation construction to provide a containment-testing algorithm. Surprisingly, empirical analysis suggests that despite the massive gap in worst-case complexity, Ramsey-based approaches are superior over the domain of SCT problems. Upon further analysis we discover an interesting property of the problem space that both explains this result and provides a chance to improve rank-based tools. With these improvements, we show that theoretical gains in efficiency of the rank-based approach are mirrored in empirical performance.