2010

Editor: Anuj Dawar, Helmut Veith

We study probabilistic complexity classes and questions of derandomisation from a logical point of view. For each logic L we introduce a new logic BPL, bounded error probabilistic L, which is defined from L in a similar way as the complexity class BPP, bounded error probabilistic polynomial time, is defined from PTIME. Our main focus lies on questions of derandomisation, and we prove that there is a query which is definable in BPFO, the probabilistic version of first-order logic, but not in Cinf, finite variable infinitary logic with counting. This implies that many of the standard logics of finite model theory, like transitive closure logic and fixed-point logic, both with and without counting, cannot be derandomised. Similarly, we present a query on ordered structures which is definable in BPFO but not in monadic second-order logic, and a query on additive structures which is definable in BPFO but not in FO. The latter of these queries shows that certain uniform variants of AC0 (bounded-depth polynomial sized circuits) cannot be derandomised. These results are in contrast to the general belief that most standard complexity classes can be derandomised. Finally, we note that BPIFP+C, the probabilistic version of fixed-point logic with counting, captures the complexity class BPP, even on unordered structures.

It is shown that the finite satisfiability problem for two-variable logic over structures with one total preorder relation, its induced successor relation, one linear order relation and some further unary relations is EXPSPACE-complete. Actually, EXPSPACE-completeness already holds for structures that do not include the induced successor relation. As a special case, the EXPSPACE upper bound applies to two-variable logic over structures with two linear orders. A further consequence is that satisfiability of two-variable logic over data words with a linear order on positions and a linear order and successor relation on the data is decidable in EXPSPACE. As a complementing result, it is shown that over structures with two total preorder relations as well as over structures with one total preorder and two linear order relations, the finite satisfiability problem for two-variable logic is undecidable.

Gödel logic with the projection operator Delta (G_Delta) is an important many-valued as well as intermediate logic. In contrast to classical logic, the validity and the satisfiability problems of G_Delta are not directly dual to each other. We nevertheless provide a uniform, computational treatment of both problems for prenex formulas by describing appropriate translations into sets of order clauses that can be subjected to chaining resolution. For validity a version of Herbrand's Theorem allows us to show the soundness of standard Skolemization. For satisfiability the translation involves a novel, extended Skolemization method.

We introduce two-sorted theories in the style of [CN10] for the complexity classes \oplusL and DET, whose complete problems include determinants over Z2 and Z, respectively. We then describe interpretations of Soltys' linear algebra theory LAp over arbitrary integral domains, into each of our new theories. The result shows equivalences of standard theorems of linear algebra over Z2 and Z can be proved in the corresponding theory, but leaves open the interesting question of whether the theorems themselves can be proved.

This paper provides an induction rule that can be used to prove properties of data structures whose types are inductive, i.e., are carriers of initial algebras of functors. Our results are semantic in nature and are inspired by Hermida and Jacobs' elegant algebraic formulation of induction for polynomial data types. Our contribution is to derive, under slightly different assumptions, a sound induction rule that is generic over all inductive types, polynomial or not. Our induction rule is generic over the kinds of properties to be proved as well: like Hermida and Jacobs, we work in a general fibrational setting and so can accommodate very general notions of properties on inductive types rather than just those of a particular syntactic form. We establish the soundness of our generic induction rule by reducing induction to iteration. We then show how our generic induction rule can be instantiated to give induction rules for the data types of rose trees, finite hereditary sets, and hyperfunctions. The first of these lies outside the scope of Hermida and Jacobs' work because it is not polynomial, and as far as we are aware, no induction rules have been known to exist for the second and third in a general fibrational framework. Our instantiation for hyperfunctions underscores the value of working in the general fibrational setting since this data type cannot be interpreted as a set.

We prove "untyping" theorems: in some typed theories (semirings, Kleene algebras, residuated lattices, involutive residuated lattices), typed equations can be derived from the underlying untyped equations. As a consequence, the corresponding untyped decision procedures can be extended for free to the typed settings. Some of these theorems are obtained via a detour through fragments of cyclic linear logic, and give rise to a substantial optimisation of standard proof search algorithms.

We present a both simple and comprehensive graphical calculus for quantum computing. In particular, we axiomatize the notion of an environment, which together with the earlier introduced axiomatic notion of classical structure enables us to define classical channels, quantum measurements and classical control. If we moreover adjoin the earlier introduced axiomatic notion of complementarity, we obtain sufficient structural power for constructive representation and correctness derivation of typical quantum informatic protocols.

We address a fundamental mismatch between the combinations of dynamics that occur in cyber-physical systems and the limited kinds of dynamics supported in analysis. Modern applications combine communication, computation, and control. They may even form dynamic distributed networks, where neither structure nor dimension stay the same while the system follows hybrid dynamics, i.e., mixed discrete and continuous dynamics. We provide the logical foundations for closing this analytic gap. We develop a formal model for distributed hybrid systems. It combines quantified differential equations with quantified assignments and dynamic dimensionality-changes. We introduce a dynamic logic for verifying distributed hybrid systems and present a proof calculus for this logic. This is the first formal verification approach for distributed hybrid systems. We prove that our calculus is a sound and complete axiomatization of the behavior of distributed hybrid systems relative to quantified differential equations. In our calculus we have proven collision freedom in distributed car control even when an unbounded number of new cars may appear dynamically on the road.