2011

Editors: Vasco Brattka, Peter Hertling, Margaret Archibald

This special issue of the journal *Logical Methods in Computer Science* (LMCS) contains a number of selected articles related to the Eighth International Conference on *Computability and Complexity in Analysis* (CCA 2011) that took place from 31 January to 4 February 2011 at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, see http://cca-net.de/cca2011/. Some of these articles, but not all, are based on papers that were presented at this conference.

The conference and this special issue are concerned with computable analysis, the theory of computability and complexity over real-valued data. The contributions to this special issue cover several hot topics of current research, including classical topics of computable analysis and constructive analysis, descriptive set theory, game theory, Brownian motion and algorithmic randomness. All articles in this special issue have been carefully refereed according to the usual high standards of the journal LMCS and our discipline.

We would like to thank all authors for their contributions to this special issue and all referees for their thorough and careful work. We would also like to use this opportunity to thank all members of the organizing committee of the conference CCA 2011 and all sponsors for their generous support. The help and support from LMCS is kindly acknowledged.

Margaret Archibald, Vasco Brattka, Martin Escardo, Peter Hertling

Special Issue Editors

Special Issue Editors

By considering a counting-type argument on Brownian sample paths, we prove a result similar to that of Orey and Taylor on the exact Hausdorff dimension of the rapid points of Brownian motion. Because of the nature of the proof we can then apply the concepts to so-called complex oscillations (or 'algorithmically random Brownian motion'), showing that their rapid points have the same dimension.

We present a notion of precompactness, and study some of its properties, in the context of apartness spaces whose apartness structure is not necessarily induced by any uniform one. The presentation lies entirely with a Bishop-style constructive framework, and is a contribution to the ongoing development of the constructive theories of apartness and uniformity.

In mathematics curves are typically defined as the images of continuous real functions (parametrizations) defined on a closed interval. They can also be defined as connected one-dimensional compact subsets of points. For simple curves of finite lengths, parametrizations can be further required to be injective or even length-normalized. All of these four approaches to curves are classically equivalent. In this paper we investigate four different versions of computable curves based on these four approaches. It turns out that they are all different, and hence, we get four different classes of computable curves. More interestingly, these four classes are even point-separable in the sense that the sets of points covered by computable curves of different versions are also different. However, if we consider only computable curves of computable lengths, then all four versions of computable curves become equivalent. This shows that the definition of computable curves is robust, at least for those of computable lengths. In addition, we show that the class of computable curves of computable lengths is point-separable from the other four classes of computable curves.

We present an algorithm which computes the Landau constant up to any given precision.

In game theory, the concept of Nash equilibrium reflects the collective stability of some individual strategies chosen by selfish agents. The concept pertains to different classes of games, e.g. the sequential games, where the agents play in turn. Two existing results are relevant here: first, all finite such games have a Nash equilibrium (w.r.t. some given preferences) iff all the given preferences are acyclic; second, all infinite such games have a Nash equilibrium, if they involve two agents who compete for victory and if the actual plays making a given agent win (and the opponent lose) form a quasi-Borel set. This article generalises these two results via a single result. More generally, under the axiomatic of Zermelo-Fraenkel plus the axiom of dependent choice (ZF+DC), it proves a transfer theorem for infinite sequential games: if all two-agent win-lose games that are built using a well-behaved class of sets have a Nash equilibrium, then all multi-agent multi-outcome games that are built using the same well-behaved class of sets have a Nash equilibrium, provided that the inverse relations of the agents' preferences are strictly well-founded.

Almost all representations considered in computable analysis are partial. We provide arguments in favor of total representations (by elements of the Baire space). Total representations make the well known analogy between numberings and representations closer, unify some terminology, simplify some technical details, suggest interesting open questions and new invariants of topological spaces relevant to computable analysis.

This article continues the study of computable elementary topology started by the author and T. Grubba in 2009 and extends the author's 2010 study of axioms of computable separation. Several computable T3- and Tychonoff separation axioms are introduced and their logical relation is investigated. A number of implications between these axioms are proved and several implications are excluded by counter examples, however, many questions have not yet been answered. Known results on computable metrization of T3-spaces from M. Schr/"oder (1998) and T. Grubba, M. Schr/"oder and the author (2007) are proved under uniform assumptions and with partly simpler proofs, in particular, the theorem that every computably regular computable topological space with non-empty base elements can be embedded into a computable metric space. Most of the computable separation axioms remain true for finite products of spaces.

This article is a fundamental study in computable analysis. In the framework of Type-2 effectivity, TTE, we investigate computability aspects on finite and infinite products of effective topological spaces. For obtaining uniform results we introduce natural multi-representations of the class of all effective topological spaces, of their points, of their subsets and of their compact subsets. We show that the binary, finite and countable product operations on effective topological spaces are computable. For spaces with non-empty base sets the factors can be retrieved from the products. We study computability of the product operations on points, on arbitrary subsets and on compact subsets. For the case of compact sets the results are uniformly computable versions of Tychonoff's Theorem (stating that every Cartesian product of compact spaces is compact) for both, the cover multi-representation and the "minimal cover" multi-representation.