2011

Editors: Martin Grohe, Patrick Baillot, Stephan Kreutzer

We investigate the problem of type isomorphisms in the presence of higher-order references. We first introduce a finitary programming language with sum types and higher-order references, for which we build a fully abstract games model following the work of Abramsky, Honda and McCusker. Solving an open problem by Laurent, we show that two finitely branching arenas are isomorphic if and only if they are geometrically the same, up to renaming of moves (Laurent's forest isomorphism). We deduce from this an equational theory characterizing isomorphisms of types in our language. We show however that Laurent's conjecture does not hold on infinitely branching arenas, yielding new non-trivial type isomorphisms in a variant of our language with natural numbers.

Using Je\v{r}ábek 's framework for probabilistic reasoning, we formalize the correctness of two fundamental RNC^2 algorithms for bipartite perfect matching within the theory VPV for polytime reasoning. The first algorithm is for testing if a bipartite graph has a perfect matching, and is based on the Schwartz-Zippel Lemma for polynomial identity testing applied to the Edmonds polynomial of the graph. The second algorithm, due to Mulmuley, Vazirani and Vazirani, is for finding a perfect matching, where the key ingredient of this algorithm is the Isolating Lemma.

We present the topos S of trees as a model of guarded recursion. We study the internal dependently-typed higher-order logic of S and show that S models two modal operators, on predicates and types, which serve as guards in recursive definitions of terms, predicates, and types. In particular, we show how to solve recursive type equations involving dependent types. We propose that the internal logic of S provides the right setting for the synthetic construction of abstract versions of step-indexed models of programming languages and program logics. As an example, we show how to construct a model of a programming language with higher-order store and recursive types entirely inside the internal logic of S. Moreover, we give an axiomatic categorical treatment of models of synthetic guarded domain theory and prove that, for any complete Heyting algebra A with a well-founded basis, the topos of sheaves over A forms a model of synthetic guarded domain theory, generalizing the results for S.

A system of linear dependent types for the lambda calculus with full higher-order recursion, called dlPCF, is introduced and proved sound and relatively complete. Completeness holds in a strong sense: dlPCF is not only able to precisely capture the functional behaviour of PCF programs (i.e. how the output relates to the input) but also some of their intensional properties, namely the complexity of evaluating them with Krivine's Machine. dlPCF is designed around dependent types and linear logic and is parametrized on the underlying language of index terms, which can be tuned so as to sacrifice completeness for tractability.

We study Markov decision processes (MDPs) with multiple limit-average (or mean-payoff) functions. We consider two different objectives, namely, expectation and satisfaction objectives. Given an MDP with k limit-average functions, in the expectation objective the goal is to maximize the expected limit-average value, and in the satisfaction objective the goal is to maximize the probability of runs such that the limit-average value stays above a given vector. We show that under the expectation objective, in contrast to the case of one limit-average function, both randomization and memory are necessary for strategies even for epsilon-approximation, and that finite-memory randomized strategies are sufficient for achieving Pareto optimal values. Under the satisfaction objective, in contrast to the case of one limit-average function, infinite memory is necessary for strategies achieving a specific value (i.e. randomized finite-memory strategies are not sufficient), whereas memoryless randomized strategies are sufficient for epsilon-approximation, for all epsilon>0. We further prove that the decision problems for both expectation and satisfaction objectives can be solved in polynomial time and the trade-off curve (Pareto curve) can be epsilon-approximated in time polynomial in the size of the MDP and 1/epsilon, and exponential in the number of limit-average functions, for all epsilon>0. Our analysis also reveals flaws in previous work for MDPs with multiple mean-payoff […]

We study languages over infinite alphabets equipped with some structure that can be tested by recognizing automata. We develop a framework for studying such alphabets and the ensuing automata theory, where the key role is played by an automorphism group of the alphabet. In the process, we generalize nominal sets due to Gabbay and Pitts.