Volume 13, Issue 1


1. Logical compactness and constraint satisfaction problems

Danny Rorabaugh ; Claude Tardif ; David Wehlau.
We investigate a correspondence between the complexity hierarchy of constraint satisfaction problems and a hierarchy of logical compactness hypotheses for finite relational structures. It seems that the harder a constraint satisfaction problem is, the stronger the corresponding compactness hypothesis is. At the top level, the NP-complete constraint satisfaction problems correspond to compactness hypotheses that are equivalent to the ultrafilter axiom in all the cases we have investigated. At the bottom level, the simplest constraint satisfaction problems correspond to compactness hypotheses that are readily provable from the axioms of Zermelo and Fraenkel.

2. Mixed powerdomains for probability and nondeterminism

Klaus Keimel ; Gordon D. Plotkin.
We consider mixed powerdomains combining ordinary nondeterminism and probabilistic nondeterminism. We characterise them as free algebras for suitable (in)equation-al theories; we establish functional representation theorems; and we show equivalencies between state transformers and appropriately healthy predicate transformers. The extended nonnegative reals serve as `truth-values'. As usual with powerdomains, everything comes in three flavours: lower, upper, and order-convex. The powerdomains are suitable convex sets of subprobability valuations, corresponding to resolving nondeterministic choice before probabilistic choice. Algebraically this corresponds to the probabilistic choice operator distributing over the nondeterministic choice operator. (An alternative approach to combining the two forms of nondeterminism would be to resolve probabilistic choice first, arriving at a domain-theoretic version of random sets. However, as we also show, the algebraic approach then runs into difficulties.) Rather than working directly with valuations, we take a domain-theoretic functional-analytic approach, employing domain-theoretic abstract convex sets called Kegelspitzen; these are equivalent to the abstract probabilistic algebras of Graham and Jones, but are more convenient to work with. So we define power Kegelspitzen, and consider free algebras, functional representations, and predicate transformers. To do so we make use of previous work on domain-theoretic cones (d-cones), with […]

3. Stream Differential Equations: Specification Formats and Solution Methods

Helle Hvid Hansen ; Clemens Kupke ; Jan Rutten.
Streams, or infinite sequences, are infinite objects of a very simple type, yet they have a rich theory partly due to their ubiquity in mathematics and computer science. Stream differential equations are a coinductive method for specifying streams and stream operations, and their theory has been developed in many papers over the past two decades. In this paper we present a survey of the many results in this area. Our focus is on the classification of different formats of stream differential equations, their solution methods, and the classes of streams they can define. Moreover, we describe in detail the connection between the so-called syntactic solution method and abstract GSOS.

4. Unprovability of circuit upper bounds in Cook's theory PV

Jan Krajicek ; Igor C. Oliveira.
We establish unconditionally that for every integer $k \geq 1$ there is a language $L \in \mbox{P}$ such that it is consistent with Cook's theory PV that $L \notin Size(n^k)$. Our argument is non-constructive and does not provide an explicit description of this language.

5. A feasible interpolation for random resolution

Jan Krajicek.
Random resolution, defined by Buss, Kolodziejczyk and Thapen (JSL, 2014), is a sound propositional proof system that extends the resolution proof system by the possibility to augment any set of initial clauses by a set of randomly chosen clauses (modulo a technical condition). We show how to apply the general feasible interpolation theorem for semantic derivations of Krajicek (JSL, 1997) to random resolution. As a consequence we get a lower bound for random resolution refutations of the clique-coloring formulas.

6. Complexity of Conditional Term Rewriting

Cynthia Kop ; Aart Middeldorp ; Thomas Sternagel.
We propose a notion of complexity for oriented conditional term rewrite systems satisfying certain restrictions. This notion is realistic in the sense that it measures not only successful computations, but also partial computations that result in a failed rule application. A transformation to unconditional context-sensitive rewrite systems is presented which reflects this complexity notion, as well as a technique to derive runtime and derivational complexity bounds for the result of this transformation.

7. Sequential decision problems, dependent types and generic solutions

Nicola Botta ; Patrik Jansson ; Cezar Ionescu ; David R. Christiansen ; Edwin Brady.
We present a computer-checked generic implementation for solving finite-horizon sequential decision problems. This is a wide class of problems, including inter-temporal optimizations, knapsack, optimal bracketing, scheduling, etc. The implementation can handle time-step dependent control and state spaces, and monadic representations of uncertainty (such as stochastic, non-deterministic, fuzzy, or combinations thereof). This level of genericity is achievable in a programming language with dependent types (we have used both Idris and Agda). Dependent types are also the means that allow us to obtain a formalization and computer-checked proof of the central component of our implementation: Bellman's principle of optimality and the associated backwards induction algorithm. The formalization clarifies certain aspects of backwards induction and, by making explicit notions such as viability and reachability, can serve as a starting point for a theory of controllability of monadic dynamical systems, commonly encountered in, e.g., climate impact research.

8. Lineal: A linear-algebraic Lambda-calculus

Pablo Arrighi ; Gilles Dowek.
We provide a computational definition of the notions of vector space and bilinear functions. We use this result to introduce a minimal language combining higher-order computation and linear algebra. This language extends the Lambda-calculus with the possibility to make arbitrary linear combinations of terms alpha.t + beta.u. We describe how to "execute" this language in terms of a few rewrite rules, and justify them through the two fundamental requirements that the language be a language of linear operators, and that it be higher-order. We mention the perspectives of this work in the field of quantum computation, whose circuits we show can be easily encoded in the calculus. Finally, we prove the confluence of the entire calculus.

9. Reasoning about Strategies: on the Satisfiability Problem

Fabio Mogavero ; Aniello Murano ; Giuseppe Perelli ; Moshe Y. Vardi.
Strategy Logic (SL, for short) has been introduced by Mogavero, Murano, and Vardi as a useful formalism for reasoning explicitly about strategies, as first-order objects, in multi-agent concurrent games. This logic turns out to be very powerful, subsuming all major previously studied modal logics for strategic reasoning, including ATL, ATL*, and the like. Unfortunately, due to its high expressiveness, SL has a non-elementarily decidable model-checking problem and the satisfiability question is undecidable, specifically Sigma_1^1. In order to obtain a decidable sublogic, we introduce and study here One-Goal Strategy Logic (SL[1G], for short). This is a syntactic fragment of SL, strictly subsuming ATL*, which encompasses formulas in prenex normal form having a single temporal goal at a time, for every strategy quantification of agents. We prove that, unlike SL, SL[1G] has the bounded tree-model property and its satisfiability problem is decidable in 2ExpTime, thus not harder than the one for ATL*.

10. A Coordination Language for Databases

Ximeng Li ; Xi Wu ; Alberto Lluch Lafuente ; Flemming Nielson ; Hanne Riis Nielson.
We present a coordination language for the modeling of distributed database applications. The language, baptized Klaim-DB, borrows the concepts of localities and nets of the coordination language Klaim but re-incarnates the tuple spaces of Klaim as databases. It provides high-level abstractions and primitives for the access and manipulation of structured data, with integrity and atomicity considerations. We present the formal semantics of Klaim-DB and develop a type system that avoids potential runtime errors such as certain evaluation errors and mismatches of data format in tables, which are monitored in the semantics. The use of the language is illustrated in a scenario where the sales from different branches of a chain of department stores are aggregated from their local databases. Raising the abstraction level and encapsulating integrity checks in the language primitives have benefited the modeling task considerably.

11. Termination of Cycle Rewriting by Transformation and Matrix Interpretation

David Sabel ; Hans Zantema.
We present techniques to prove termination of cycle rewriting, that is, string rewriting on cycles, which are strings in which the start and end are connected. Our main technique is to transform cycle rewriting into string rewriting and then apply state of the art techniques to prove termination of the string rewrite system. We present three such transformations, and prove for all of them that they are sound and complete. In this way not only termination of string rewriting of the transformed system implies termination of the original cycle rewrite system, a similar conclusion can be drawn for non-termination. Apart from this transformational approach, we present a uniform framework of matrix interpretations, covering most of the earlier approaches to automatically proving termination of cycle rewriting. All our techniques serve both for proving termination and relative termination. We present several experiments showing the power of our techniques.

12. Reachability Analysis of Innermost Rewriting

Thomas Genet ; Yann Salmon.
We consider the problem of inferring a grammar describing the output of a functional program given a grammar describing its input. Solutions to this problem are helpful for detecting bugs or proving safety properties of functional programs, and several rewriting tools exist for solving this problem. However, known grammar inference techniques are not able to take evaluation strategies of the program into account. This yields very imprecise results when the evaluation strategy matters. In this work, we adapt the Tree Automata Completion algorithm to approximate accurately the set of terms reachable by rewriting under the innermost strategy. We formally prove that the proposed technique is sound and precise w.r.t. innermost rewriting. We show that those results can be extended to the leftmost and rightmost innermost case. The algorithms for the general innermost case have been implemented in the Timbuk reachability tool. Experiments show that it noticeably improves the accuracy of static analysis for functional programs using the call-by-value evaluation strategy.

13. Asynchronous Distributed Execution Of Fixpoint-Based Computational Fields

Alberto Lluch Lafuente ; Michele Loreti ; Ugo Montanari.
Coordination is essential for dynamic distributed systems whose components exhibit interactive and autonomous behaviors. Spatially distributed, locally interacting, propagating computational fields are particularly appealing for allowing components to join and leave with little or no overhead. Computational fields are a key ingredient of aggregate programming, a promising software engineering methodology particularly relevant for the Internet of Things. In our approach, space topology is represented by a fixed graph-shaped field, namely a network with attributes on both nodes and arcs, where arcs represent interaction capabilities between nodes. We propose a SMuC calculus where mu-calculus- like modal formulas represent how the values stored in neighbor nodes should be combined to update the present node. Fixpoint operations can be understood globally as recursive definitions, or locally as asynchronous converging propagation processes. We present a distributed implementation of our calculus. The translation is first done mapping SMuC programs into normal form, purely iterative programs and then into distributed programs. Some key results are presented that show convergence of fixpoint computations under fair asynchrony and under reinitialization of nodes. The first result allows nodes to proceed at different speeds, while the second one provides robustness against certain kinds of failure. We illustrate our approach with a case study based on a disaster recovery scenario, […]

14. Typing weak MSOL properties

Sylvain Salvati ; Igor Walukiewicz.
We consider lambda-Y-calculus as a non-interpreted functional programming language: the result of the execution of a program is its normal form that can be seen as the tree of calls to built-in operations. Weak monadic second-order logic (wMSOL) is well suited to express properties of such trees. We give a type system for ensuring that the result of the execution of a lambda-Y-program satisfies a given wMSOL property. In order to prove soundness and completeness of the system we construct a denotational semantics of lambda-Y-calculus that is capable of computing properties expressed in wMSOL.

15. Notions of Anonymous Existence in Martin-Löf Type Theory

Nicolai Kraus ; Martín Escardó ; Thierry Coquand ; Thorsten Altenkirch.
As the groupoid model of Hofmann and Streicher proves, identity proofs in intensional Martin-Löf type theory cannot generally be shown to be unique. Inspired by a theorem by Hedberg, we give some simple characterizations of types that do have unique identity proofs. A key ingredient in these constructions are weakly constant endofunctions on identity types. We study such endofunctions on arbitrary types and show that they always factor through a propositional type, the truncated or squashed domain. Such a factorization is impossible for weakly constant functions in general (a result by Shulman), but we present several non-trivial cases in which it can be done. Based on these results, we define a new notion of anonymous existence in type theory and compare different forms of existence carefully. In addition, we show possibly surprising consequences of the judgmental computation rule of the truncation, in particular in the context of homotopy type theory. All the results have been formalized and verified in the dependently typed programming language Agda.

16. Minimisation of Multiplicity Tree Automata

Stefan Kiefer ; Ines Marusic ; James Worrell.
We consider the problem of minimising the number of states in a multiplicity tree automaton over the field of rational numbers. We give a minimisation algorithm that runs in polynomial time assuming unit-cost arithmetic. We also show that a polynomial bound in the standard Turing model would require a breakthrough in the complexity of polynomial identity testing by proving that the latter problem is logspace equivalent to the decision version of minimisation. The developed techniques also improve the state of the art in multiplicity word automata: we give an NC algorithm for minimising multiplicity word automata. Finally, we consider the minimal consistency problem: does there exist an automaton with $n$ states that is consistent with a given finite sample of weight-labelled words or trees? We show that this decision problem is complete for the existential theory of the rationals, both for words and for trees of a fixed alphabet rank.

17. Multiparty Session Actors

Rumyana Neykova ; Nobuko Yoshida.
Actor coordination armoured with a suitable protocol description language has been a pressing problem in the actors community. We study the applicability of multiparty session type (MPST) protocols for verification of actor programs. We incorporate sessions to actors by introducing minimum additions to the model such as the notion of actor roles and protocol mailboxes. The framework uses Scribble, which is a protocol description language based on multiparty session types. Our programming model supports actor-like syntax and runtime verification mechanism guaranteeing communication safety of the participating entities. An actor can implement multiple roles in a similar way as an object can implement multiple interfaces. Multiple roles allow for cooperative inter-concurrency in a single actor. We demonstrate our framework by designing and implementing a session actor library in Python and its runtime verification mechanism. Benchmark results demonstrate that the runtime checks induce negligible overhead. We evaluate the applicability of our verification framework to specify actor interactions by implementing twelve examples from an actor benchmark suit.

18. Existence of strongly proper dyadic subbases

Yasuyuki Tsukamoto.
We consider a topological space with its subbase which induces a coding for each point. Every second-countable Hausdorff space has a subbase that is the union of countably many pairs of disjoint open subsets. A dyadic subbase is such a subbase with a fixed enumeration. If a dyadic subbase is given, then we obtain a domain representation of the given space. The properness and the strong properness of dyadic subbases have been studied, and it is known that every strongly proper dyadic subbase induces an admissible domain representation regardless of its enumeration. We show that every locally compact separable metric space has a strongly proper dyadic subbase.