Volume 14, Issue 3


1. The Covering Problem

Thomas Place ; Marc Zeitoun.
An important endeavor in computer science is to understand the expressive power of logical formalisms over discrete structures, such as words. Naturally, "understanding" is not a mathematical notion. This investigation requires therefore a concrete objective to capture this understanding. In the literature, the standard choice for this objective is the membership problem, whose aim is to find a procedure deciding whether an input regular language can be defined in the logic under investigation. This approach was cemented as the right one by the seminal work of Schützenberger, McNaughton and Papert on first-order logic and has been in use since then. However, membership questions are hard: for several important fragments, researchers have failed in this endeavor despite decades of investigation. In view of recent results on one of the most famous open questions, namely the quantifier alternation hierarchy of first-order logic, an explanation may be that membership is too restrictive as a setting. These new results were indeed obtained by considering more general problems than membership, taking advantage of the increased flexibility of the enriched mathematical setting. This opens a promising research avenue and efforts have been devoted at identifying and solving such problems for natural fragments. Until now however, these problems have been ad hoc, most fragments relying on a specific one. A unique new problem replacing membership as the right one is still […]

2. Relational Graph Models at Work

Flavien Breuvart ; Giulio Manzonetto ; Domenico Ruoppolo.
We study the relational graph models that constitute a natural subclass of relational models of lambda-calculus. We prove that among the lambda-theories induced by such models there exists a minimal one, and that the corresponding relational graph model is very natural and easy to construct. We then study relational graph models that are fully abstract, in the sense that they capture some observational equivalence between lambda-terms. We focus on the two main observational equivalences in the lambda-calculus, the theory H+ generated by taking as observables the beta-normal forms, and H* generated by considering as observables the head normal forms. On the one hand we introduce a notion of lambda-König model and prove that a relational graph model is fully abstract for H+ if and only if it is extensional and lambda-König. On the other hand we show that the dual notion of hyperimmune model, together with extensionality, captures the full abstraction for H*.

3. The intuitionistic temporal logic of dynamical systems

David Fernández-Duque.
A dynamical system is a pair $(X,f)$, where $X$ is a topological space and $f\colon X\to X$ is continuous. Kremer observed that the language of propositional linear temporal logic can be interpreted over the class of dynamical systems, giving rise to a natural intuitionistic temporal logic. We introduce a variant of Kremer's logic, which we denote ${\sf ITL^c}$, and show that it is decidable. We also show that minimality and Poincaré recurrence are both expressible in the language of ${\sf ITL^c}$, thus providing a decidable logic expressive enough to reason about non-trivial asymptotic behavior in dynamical systems.

4. A Ghost at $\omega_1$

Paul Blain Levy.
In the final chain of the countable powerset functor, we show that the set at index $\omega_1$, regarded as a transition system, is not strongly extensional because it contains a "ghost" element that has no successor even though its component at each successor index is inhabited. The method, adapted from a construction of Forti and Honsell, also gives ghosts at larger ordinals in the final chain of other subfunctors of the powerset functor. This leads to a precise description of which sets in these final chains are strongly extensional.

5. A topological interpretation of three Leibnizian principles within the functional extensions

Marco Forti.
Three philosophical principles are often quoted in connection with Leibniz: "objects sharing the same properties are the same object" (Identity of indiscernibles), "everything can possibly exist, unless it yields contradiction" (Possibility as consistency), and "the ideal elements correctly determine the real things" (Transfer). Here we give a precise logico-mathematical formulation of these principles within the framework of the Functional Extensions, mathematical structures that generalize at once compactifications, completions, and elementary extensions of models. In this context, the above Leibnizian principles appear as topological or algebraic properties, namely: a property of separation, a property of compactness, and a property of directeness, respectively. Abiding by this interpretation, we obtain the somehow surprising conclusion that these Leibnizian principles may be fulfilled in pairs, but not all three together.

6. Unification and Logarithmic Space

Clément Aubert ; Marc Bagnol.
We present an algebraic characterization of the complexity classes Logspace and Nlogspace, using an algebra with a composition law based on unification. This new bridge between unification and complexity classes is rooted in proof theory and more specifically linear logic and geometry of interaction. We show how to build a model of computation in the unification algebra and then, by means of a syntactic representation of finite permutations in the algebra, we prove that whether an observation (the algebraic counterpart of a program) accepts a word can be decided within logarithmic space. Finally, we show that the construction naturally corresponds to pointer machines, a convenient way of understanding logarithmic space computation.

7. Inhabitation for Non-idempotent Intersection Types

Antonio Bucciarelli ; Delia Kesner ; Simona Ronchi Della Rocca.
The inhabitation problem for intersection types in the lambda-calculus is known to be undecidable. We study the problem in the case of non-idempotent intersection, considering several type assignment systems, which characterize the solvable or the strongly normalizing lambda-terms. We prove the decidability of the inhabitation problem for all the systems considered, by providing sound and complete inhabitation algorithms for them.

8. The recursion hierarchy for PCF is strict

John Longley.
We consider the sublanguages of Plotkin's PCF obtained by imposing some bound k on the levels of types for which fixed point operators are admitted. We show that these languages form a strict hierarchy, in the sense that a fixed point operator for a type of level k can never be defined (up to observational equivalence) using fixed point operators for lower types. This answers a question posed by Berger. Our proof makes substantial use of the theory of nested sequential procedures (also called PCF Böhm trees) as expounded in the recent book of Longley and Normann.

9. Infinite and Bi-infinite Words with Decidable Monadic Theories

Dietrich Kuske ; Jiamou Liu ; Anastasia Moskvina.
We study word structures of the form $(D,<,P)$ where $D$ is either $\mathbb{N}$ or $\mathbb{Z}$, $<$ is the natural linear ordering on $D$ and $P\subseteq D$ is a predicate on $D$. In particular we show: (a) The set of recursive $\omega$-words with decidable monadic second order theories is $\Sigma_3$-complete. (b) Known characterisations of the $\omega$-words with decidable monadic second order theories are transfered to the corresponding question for bi-infinite words. (c) We show that such "tame" predicates $P$ exist in every Turing degree. (d) We determine, for $P\subseteq\mathbb{Z}$, the number of predicates $Q\subseteq\mathbb{Z}$ such that $(\mathbb{Z},\le,P)$ and $(\mathbb{Z},\le,Q)$ are indistinguishable. Through these results we demonstrate similarities and differences between logical properties of infinite and bi-infinite words.

10. Unguarded Recursion on Coinductive Resumptions

Sergey Goncharov ; Lutz Schröder ; Christoph Rauch ; Julian Jakob.
We study a model of side-effecting processes obtained by starting from a monad modelling base effects and adjoining free operations using a cofree coalgebra construction; one thus arrives at what one may think of as types of non-wellfounded side-effecting trees, generalizing the infinite resumption monad. Correspondingly, the arising monad transformer has been termed the coinductive generalized resumption transformer. Monads of this kind have received some attention in the recent literature; in particular, it has been shown that they admit guarded iteration. Here, we show that they also admit unguarded iteration, i.e. form complete Elgot monads, provided that the underlying base effect supports unguarded iteration. Moreover, we provide a universal characterization of the coinductive resumption monad transformer in terms of coproducts of complete Elgot monads.

11. Trees from Functions as Processes

Davide Sangiorgi ; Xian Xu.
Levy-Longo Trees and Bohm Trees are the best known tree structures on the {\lambda}-calculus. We give general conditions under which an encoding of the {\lambda}-calculus into the {\pi}-calculus is sound and complete with respect to such trees. We apply these conditions to various encodings of the call-by-name {\lambda}-calculus, showing how the two kinds of tree can be obtained by varying the behavioural equivalence adopted in the {\pi}-calculus and/or the encoding.

12. Ologisms

Ruggero Pagnan.
We introduce ologisms. They generate from ologs by extending their logical expressivity, from the possibility of considering constraints of equational nature only to the possibility of considering constraints of syllogistic nature, in addition. This is obtained by taking advantage of the peculiar features of an original diagrammatic logical calculus for the syllogistic, that make it well-behaved with respect to the design of ologs.

13. A Galois connection between Turing jumps and limits

Vasco Brattka.
Limit computable functions can be characterized by Turing jumps on the input side or limits on the output side. As a monad of this pair of adjoint operations we obtain a problem that characterizes the low functions and dually to this another problem that characterizes the functions that are computable relative to the halting problem. Correspondingly, these two classes are the largest classes of functions that can be pre or post composed to limit computable functions without leaving the class of limit computable functions. We transfer these observations to the lattice of represented spaces where it leads to a formal Galois connection. We also formulate a version of this result for computable metric spaces. Limit computability and computability relative to the halting problem are notions that coincide for points and sequences, but even restricted to continuous functions the former class is strictly larger than the latter. On computable metric spaces we can characterize the functions that are computable relative to the halting problem as those functions that are limit computable with a modulus of continuity that is computable relative to the halting problem. As a consequence of this result we obtain, for instance, that Lipschitz continuous functions that are limit computable are automatically computable relative to the halting problem. We also discuss 1-generic points as the canonical points of continuity of limit computable functions, and we prove that restricted to these […]
Section: Computability and logic

14. Universal Constructions for (Co)Relations: categories, monoidal categories, and props

Brendan Fong ; Fabio Zanasi.
Calculi of string diagrams are increasingly used to present the syntax and algebraic structure of various families of circuits, including signal flow graphs, electrical circuits and quantum processes. In many such approaches, the semantic interpretation for diagrams is given in terms of relations or corelations (generalised equivalence relations) of some kind. In this paper we show how semantic categories of both relations and corelations can be characterised as colimits of simpler categories. This modular perspective is important as it simplifies the task of giving a complete axiomatisation for semantic equivalence of string diagrams. Moreover, our general result unifies various theorems that are independently found in literature and are relevant for program semantics, quantum computation and control theory.
Section: Categorical models and logic

15. Coalgebraic Infinite Traces and Kleisli Simulations

Natsuki Urabe ; Ichiro Hasuo.
Kleisli simulation is a categorical notion introduced by Hasuo to verify finite trace inclusion. They allow us to give definitions of forward and backward simulation for various types of systems. A generic categorical theory behind Kleisli simulation has been developed and it guarantees the soundness of those simulations with respect to finite trace semantics. Moreover, those simulations can be aided by forward partial execution (FPE)---a categorical transformation of systems previously introduced by the authors. In this paper, we give Kleisli simulation a theoretical foundation that assures its soundness also with respect to infinitary traces. There, following Jacobs' work, infinitary trace semantics is characterized as the "largest homomorphism." It turns out that soundness of forward simulations is rather straightforward; that of backward simulation holds too, although it requires certain additional conditions and its proof is more involved. We also show that FPE can be successfully employed in the infinitary trace setting to enhance the applicability of Kleisli simulations as witnesses of trace inclusion. Our framework is parameterized in the monad for branching as well as in the functor for linear-time behaviors; for the former we mainly use the powerset monad (for nondeterminism), the sub-Giry monad (for probability), and the lift monad (for exception).

16. A categorical foundation for structured reversible flowchart languages: Soundness and adequacy

Robert Glück ; Robin Kaarsgaard.
Structured reversible flowchart languages is a class of imperative reversible programming languages allowing for a simple diagrammatic representation of control flow built from a limited set of control flow structures. This class includes the reversible programming language Janus (without recursion), as well as more recently developed reversible programming languages such as R-CORE and R-WHILE. In the present paper, we develop a categorical foundation for this class of languages based on inverse categories with joins. We generalize the notion of extensivity of restriction categories to one that may be accommodated by inverse categories, and use the resulting decisions to give a reversible representation of predicates and assertions. This leads to a categorical semantics for structured reversible flowcharts, which we show to be computationally sound and adequate, as well as equationally fully abstract with respect to the operational semantics under certain conditions.

17. Java & Lambda: a Featherweight Story

Lorenzo Bettini ; Viviana Bono ; Mariangiola Dezani-Ciancaglini ; Paola Giannini ; Betti Venneri.
We present FJ&$\lambda$, a new core calculus that extends Featherweight Java (FJ) with interfaces, supporting multiple inheritance in a restricted form, $\lambda$-expressions, and intersection types. Our main goal is to formalise how lambdas and intersection types are grafted on Java 8, by studying their properties in a formal setting. We show how intersection types play a significant role in several cases, in particular in the typecast of a $\lambda$-expression and in the typing of conditional expressions. We also embody interface \emph{default methods} in FJ&$\lambda$, since they increase the dynamism of $\lambda$-expressions, by allowing these methods to be called on $\lambda$-expressions. The crucial point in Java 8 and in our calculus is that $\lambda$-expressions can have various types according to the context requirements (target types): indeed, Java code does not compile when $\lambda$-expressions come without target types. In particular, in the operational semantics we must record target types by decorating $\lambda$-expressions, otherwise they would be lost in the runtime expressions. We prove the subject reduction property and progress for the resulting calculus, and we give a type inference algorithm that returns the type of a given program if it is well typed. The design of FJ&$\lambda$ has been driven by the aim of making it a subset of Java 8, while preserving the elegance and compactness of FJ. Indeed, FJ&$\lambda$ programs are typed and […]

18. Defining Recursive Predicates in Graph Orders

Ramanathan S. Thinniyam.
We study the first order theory of structures over graphs i.e. structures of the form ($\mathcal{G},\tau$) where $\mathcal{G}$ is the set of all (isomorphism types of) finite undirected graphs and $\tau$ some vocabulary. We define the notion of a recursive predicate over graphs using Turing Machine recognizable string encodings of graphs. We also define the notion of an arithmetical relation over graphs using a total order $\leq_t$ on the set $\mathcal{G}$ such that ($\mathcal{G},\leq_t$) is isomorphic to ($\mathbb{N},\leq$). We introduce the notion of a \textit{capable} structure over graphs, which is one satisfying the conditions : (1) definability of arithmetic, (2) definability of cardinality of a graph, and (3) definability of two particular graph predicates related to vertex labellings of graphs. We then show any capable structure can define every arithmetical predicate over graphs. As a corollary, any capable structure also defines every recursive graph relation. We identify capable structures which are expansions of graph orders, which are structures of the form ($\mathcal{G},\leq$) where $\leq$ is a partial order. We show that the subgraph order i.e. ($\mathcal{G},\leq_s$), induced subgraph order with one constant $P_3$ i.e. ($\mathcal{G},\leq_i,P_3$) and an expansion of the minor order for counting edges i.e. ($\mathcal{G},\leq_m,sameSize(x,y)$) are capable structures. In the course of the proof, we show the definability of several natural graph theoretic […]

19. Coalgebraic Behavioral Metrics

Paolo Baldan ; Filippo Bonchi ; Henning Kerstan ; Barbara König.
We study different behavioral metrics, such as those arising from both branching and linear-time semantics, in a coalgebraic setting. Given a coalgebra $\alpha\colon X \to HX$ for a functor $H \colon \mathrm{Set}\to \mathrm{Set}$, we define a framework for deriving pseudometrics on $X$ which measure the behavioral distance of states. A crucial step is the lifting of the functor $H$ on $\mathrm{Set}$ to a functor $\overline{H}$ on the category $\mathrm{PMet}$ of pseudometric spaces. We present two different approaches which can be viewed as generalizations of the Kantorovich and Wasserstein pseudometrics for probability measures. We show that the pseudometrics provided by the two approaches coincide on several natural examples, but in general they differ. If $H$ has a final coalgebra, every lifting $\overline{H}$ yields in a canonical way a behavioral distance which is usually branching-time, i.e., it generalizes bisimilarity. In order to model linear-time metrics (generalizing trace equivalences), we show sufficient conditions for lifting distributive laws and monads. These results enable us to employ the generalized powerset construction.

20. Event Structures for Petri nets with Persistence

Paolo Baldan ; Roberto Bruni ; Andrea Corradini ; Fabio Gadducci ; Hernan Melgratti ; Ugo Montanari.
Event structures are a well-accepted model of concurrency. In a seminal paper by Nielsen, Plotkin and Winskel, they are used to establish a bridge between the theory of domains and the approach to concurrency proposed by Petri. A basic role is played by an unfolding construction that maps (safe) Petri nets into a subclass of event structures, called prime event structures, where each event has a uniquely determined set of causes. Prime event structures, in turn, can be identified with their domain of configurations. At a categorical level, this is nicely formalised by Winskel as a chain of coreflections. Contrary to prime event structures, general event structures allow for the presence of disjunctive causes, i.e., events can be enabled by distinct minimal sets of events. In this paper, we extend the connection between Petri nets and event structures in order to include disjunctive causes. In particular, we show that, at the level of nets, disjunctive causes are well accounted for by persistent places. These are places where tokens, once generated, can be used several times without being consumed and where multiple tokens are interpreted collectively, i.e., their histories are inessential. Generalising the work on ordinary nets, Petri nets with persistence are related to a new subclass of general event structures, called locally connected, by means of a chain of coreflections relying on an unfolding construction.

21. Equational Reasonings in Wireless Network Gossip Protocols

Ruggero Lanotte ; Massimo Merro ; Simone Tini.
Gossip protocols have been proposed as a robust and efficient method for disseminating information throughout large-scale networks. In this paper, we propose a compositional analysis technique to study formal probabilistic models of gossip protocols expressed in a simple probabilistic timed process calculus for wireless sensor networks. We equip the calculus with a simulation theory to compare probabilistic protocols that have similar behaviour up to a certain tolerance. The theory is used to prove a number of algebraic laws which revealed to be very effective to estimate the performances of gossip networks, with and without communication collisions, and randomised gossip networks. Our simulation theory is an asymmetric variant of the weak bisimulation metric that maintains most of the properties of the original definition. However, our asymmetric version is particularly suitable to reason on protocols in which the systems under consideration are not approximately equivalent, as in the case of gossip protocols.

22. On Interpolation and Symbol Elimination in Theory Extensions

Viorica Sofronie-Stokkermans.
In this paper we study possibilities of interpolation and symbol elimination in extensions of a theory $\mathcal{T}_0$ with additional function symbols whose properties are axiomatised using a set of clauses. We analyze situations in which we can perform such tasks in a hierarchical way, relying on existing mechanisms for symbol elimination in $\mathcal{T}_0$. This is for instance possible if the base theory allows quantifier elimination. We analyze possibilities of extending such methods to situations in which the base theory does not allow quantifier elimination but has a model completion which does. We illustrate the method on various examples.

23. Proper Functors and Fixed Points for Finite Behaviour

Stefan Milius.
The rational fixed point of a set functor is well-known to capture the behaviour of finite coalgebras. In this paper we consider functors on algebraic categories. For them the rational fixed point may no longer be fully abstract, i.e. a subcoalgebra of the final coalgebra. Inspired by \'Esik and Maletti's notion of a proper semiring, we introduce the notion of a proper functor. We show that for proper functors the rational fixed point is determined as the colimit of all coalgebras with a free finitely generated algebra as carrier and it is a subcoalgebra of the final coalgebra. Moreover, we prove that a functor is proper if and only if that colimit is a subcoalgebra of the final coalgebra. These results serve as technical tools for soundness and completeness proofs for coalgebraic regular expression calculi, e.g. for weighted automata.

24. Free complete Wasserstein algebras

Radu Mardare ; Prakash Panangaden ; Gordon D. Plotkin.
We present an algebraic account of the Wasserstein distances $W_p$ on complete metric spaces, for $p \geq 1$. This is part of a program of a quantitative algebraic theory of effects in programming languages. In particular, we give axioms, parametric in $p$, for algebras over metric spaces equipped with probabilistic choice operations. The axioms say that the operations form a barycentric algebra and that the metric satisfies a property typical of the Wasserstein distance $W_p$. We show that the free complete such algebra over a complete metric space is that of the Radon probability measures with finite moments of order $p$, equipped with the Wasserstein distance as metric and with the usual binary convex sums as operations.

25. Categorical structures for type theory in univalent foundations

Benedikt Ahrens ; Peter LeFanu Lumsdaine ; Vladimir Voevodsky.
In this paper, we analyze and compare three of the many algebraic structures that have been used for modeling dependent type theories: categories with families, split type-categories, and representable maps of presheaves. We study these in univalent type theory, where the comparisons between them can be given more elementarily than in set-theoretic foundations. Specifically, we construct maps between the various types of structures, and show that assuming the Univalence axiom, some of the comparisons are equivalences. We then analyze how these structures transfer along (weak and strong) equivalences of categories, and, in particular, show how they descend from a category (not assumed univalent/saturated) to its Rezk completion. To this end, we introduce relative universes, generalizing the preceding notions, and study the transfer of such relative universes along suitable structure. We work throughout in (intensional) dependent type theory; some results, but not all, assume the univalence axiom. All the material of this paper has been formalized in Coq, over the UniMath library.