Special Issue dedicated to Jos Baeten for his retirement

Editors: Wan Fokkink and Michel Reniers

1. A symmetric protocol to establish service level agreements

Jan Friso Groote ; Tim A. C. Willemse.
We present a symmetrical protocol to repeatedly negotiate a desired service level between two parties, where the service levels are taken from some totally ordered finite domain. The agreed service level is selected from levels dynamically proposed by both parties and parties can only decrease the desired service level during a negotiation. The correctness of the protocol is stated using modal formulas and its behaviour is explained using behavioural reductions of the external behaviour modulo weak trace equivalence and divergence-preserving branching bisimulation. Our protocol originates from an industrial use case and it turned out to be remarkably tricky to design correctly.

2. Collaboration vs. choreography conformance in BPMN

Flavio Corradini ; Andrea Morichetta ; Andrea Polini ; Barbara Re ; Francesco Tiezzi.
The BPMN 2.0 standard is a widely used semi-formal notation to model distributed information systems from different perspectives. The standard makes available a set of diagrams to represent such perspectives. Choreography diagrams represent global constraints concerning the interactions among system components without exposing their internal structure. Collaboration diagrams instead permit to depict the internal behaviour of a component, also referred as process, when integrated with others so to represent a possible implementation of the distributed system. This paper proposes a design methodology and a formal framework for checking conformance of choreographies against collaborations. In particular, the paper presents a direct formal operational semantics for both BPMN choreography and collaboration diagrams. Conformance aspects are proposed through two relations defined on top of the defined semantics. The approach benefits from the availability of a tool we have developed, named C4, that permits to experiment the theoretical framework in practical contexts. The objective here is to make the exploited formal methods transparent to system designers, thus fostering a wider adoption by practitioners.

3. Axiomatizing Maximal Progress and Discrete Time

Mario Bravetti.
Milner's complete proof system for observational congruence is crucially based on the possibility to equate $\tau$ divergent expressions to non-divergent ones by means of the axiom $recX. (\tau.X + E) = recX. \tau. E$. In the presence of a notion of priority, where, e.g., actions of type $\delta$ have a lower priority than silent $\tau$ actions, this axiom is no longer sound. Such a form of priority is, however, common in timed process algebra, where, due to the interpretation of $\delta$ as a time delay, it naturally arises from the maximal progress assumption. We here present our solution, based on introducing an auxiliary operator $pri(E)$ defining a "priority scope", to the long time open problem of axiomatizing priority using standard observational congruence: we provide a complete axiomatization for a basic process algebra with priority and (unguarded) recursion. We also show that, when the setting is extended by considering static operators of a discrete time calculus, an axiomatization that is complete over (a characterization of) finite-state terms can be developed by re-using techniques devised in the context of a cooperation with Prof. Jos Baeten.

4. The $\pi$-Calculus is Behaviourally Complete and Orbit-Finitely Executable

Bas Luttik ; Fei Yang.
Reactive Turing machines extend classical Turing machines with a facility to model observable interactive behaviour. We call a behaviour (finitely) executable if, and only if, it is equivalent to the behaviour of a (finite) reactive Turing machine. In this paper, we study the relationship between executable behaviour and behaviour that can be specified in the $\pi$-calculus. We establish that every finitely executable behaviour can be specified in the $\pi$-calculus up to divergence-preserving branching bisimilarity. The converse, however, is not true due to (intended) limitations of the model of reactive Turing machines. That is, the $\pi$-calculus allows the specification of behaviour that is not finitely executable up to divergence-preserving branching bisimilarity. We shall prove, however, that if the finiteness requirement on reactive Turing machines and the associated notion of executability is relaxed to orbit-finiteness, then the $\pi$-calculus is executable up to (divergence-insensitive) branching bisimilarity.

5. Datatype defining rewrite systems for naturals and integers

Jan A. Bergstra ; Alban Ponse.
A datatype defining rewrite system (DDRS) is an algebraic (equational) specification intended to specify a datatype. When interpreting the equations from left-to-right, a DDRS defines a term rewriting system that must be ground-complete. First we define two DDRSs for the ring of integers, each comprising twelve rewrite rules, and prove their ground-completeness. Then we introduce natural number and integer arithmetic specified according to unary view, that is, arithmetic based on a postfix unary append constructor (a form of tallying). Next we specify arithmetic based on two other views: binary and decimal notation. The binary and decimal view have as their characteristic that each normal form resembles common number notation, that is, either a digit, or a string of digits without leading zero, or the negated versions of the latter. Integer arithmetic in binary and decimal notation is based on (postfix) digit append functions. For each view we define a DDRS, and in each case the resulting datatype is a canonical term algebra that extends a corresponding canonical term algebra for natural numbers. Then, for each view, we consider an alternative DDRS based on tree constructors that yields comparable normal forms, which for that view admits expressions that are algorithmically more involved. For all DDRSs considered, ground-completeness is proven.

6. Failure Trace Semantics for a Process Algebra with Time-outs

Rob van Glabbeek.
This paper extends a standard process algebra with a time-out operator, thereby increasing its absolute expressiveness, while remaining within the realm of untimed process algebra, in the sense that the progress of time is not quantified. Trace and failures equivalence fail to be congruences for this operator; their congruence closure is characterised as failure trace equivalence.

7. Interface Modeling for Quality and Resource Management

Martijn Hendriks ; Marc Geilen ; Kees Goossens ; Rob de Jong ; Twan Basten.
We develop an interface-modeling framework for quality and resource management that captures configurable working points of hardware and software components in terms of functionality, resource usage and provision, and quality indicators such as performance and energy consumption. We base these aspects on partially-ordered sets to capture quality levels, budget sizes, and functional compatibility. This makes the framework widely applicable and domain independent (although we aim for embedded and cyber-physical systems). The framework paves the way for dynamic (re-)configuration and multi-objective optimization of component-based systems for quality- and resource-management purposes.

8. Star Games and Hydras

J├Ârg Endrullis ; Jan Willem Klop ; Roy Overbeek.
The recursive path ordering is an established and crucial tool in term rewriting to prove termination. We revisit its presentation by means of some simple rules on trees (or corresponding terms) equipped with a 'star' as control symbol, signifying a command to make that tree (or term) smaller in the order being defined. This leads to star games that are very convenient for proving termination of many rewriting tasks. For instance, using already the simplest star game on finite unlabeled trees, we obtain a very direct proof of termination of the famous Hydra battle, direct in the sense that there is not the usual mention of ordinals. We also include an alternative road to setting up the star games, using a proof method of Buchholz, adapted by van Oostrom, resulting in a quantitative version of the star as control symbol. We conclude with a number of questions and future research directions.

9. Discovering ePassport Vulnerabilities using Bisimilarity

Ross Horne ; Sjouke Mauw.
We uncover privacy vulnerabilities in the ICAO 9303 standard implemented by ePassports worldwide. These vulnerabilities, confirmed by ICAO, enable an ePassport holder who recently passed through a checkpoint to be reidentified without opening their ePassport. This paper explains how bisimilarity was used to discover these vulnerabilities, which exploit the BAC protocol - the original ICAO 9303 standard ePassport authentication protocol - and remains valid for the PACE protocol, which improves on the security of BAC in the latest ICAO 9303 standards. In order to tackle such bisimilarity problems, we develop here a chain of methods for the applied $\pi$-calculus including a symbolic under-approximation of bisimilarity, called open bisimilarity, and a modal logic, called classical FM, for describing and certifying attacks. Evidence is provided to argue for a new scheme for specifying such unlinkability problems that more accurately reflects the capabilities of an attacker.

10. Distribution Bisimilarity via the Power of Convex Algebras

Filippo Bonchi ; Alexandra Silva ; Ana Sokolova.
Probabilistic automata (PA), also known as probabilistic nondeterministic labelled transition systems, combine probability and nondeterminism. They can be given different semantics, like strong bisimilarity, convex bisimilarity, or (more recently) distribution bisimilarity. The latter is based on the view of PA as transformers of probability distributions, also called belief states, and promotes distributions to first-class citizens. We give a coalgebraic account of distribution bisimilarity, and explain the genesis of the belief-state transformer from a PA. To do so, we make explicit the convex algebraic structure present in PA and identify belief-state transformers as transition systems with state space that carries a convex algebra. As a consequence of our abstract approach, we can give a sound proof technique which we call bisimulation up-to convex hull.

11. Relating Apartness and Bisimulation

Herman Geuvers ; Bart Jacobs.
A bisimulation for a coalgebra of a functor on the category of sets can be described via a coalgebra in the category of relations, of a lifted functor. A final coalgebra then gives rise to the coinduction principle, which states that two bisimilar elements are equal. For polynomial functors, this leads to well-known descriptions. In the present paper we look at the dual notion of "apartness". Intuitively, two elements are apart if there is a positive way to distinguish them. Phrased differently: two elements are apart if and only if they are not bisimilar. Since apartness is an inductive notion, described by a least fixed point, we can give a proof system, to derive that two elements are apart. This proof system has derivation rules and two elements are apart if and only if there is a finite derivation (using the rules) of this fact. We study apartness versus bisimulation in two separate ways. First, for weak forms of bisimulation on labelled transition systems, where silent (tau) steps are included, we define an apartness notion that corresponds to weak bisimulation and another apartness that corresponds to branching bisimulation. The rules for apartness can be used to show that two states of a labelled transition system are not branching bismilar. To support the apartness view on labelled transition systems, we cast a number of well-known properties of branching bisimulation in terms of branching apartness and prove them. Next, we also study the more general […]

12. Modular coinduction up-to for higher-order languages via first-order transition systems

Jean-Marie Madiot ; Damien Pous ; Davide Sangiorgi.
The bisimulation proof method can be enhanced by employing `bisimulations up-to' techniques. A comprehensive theory of such enhancements has been developed for first-order (i.e., CCS-like) labelled transition systems (LTSs) and bisimilarity, based on abstract fixed-point theory and compatible functions. We transport this theory onto languages whose bisimilarity and LTS go beyond those of first-order models. The approach consists in exhibiting fully abstract translations of the more sophisticated LTSs and bisimilarities onto the first-order ones. This allows us to reuse directly the large corpus of up-to techniques that are available on first-order LTSs. The only ingredient that has to be manually supplied is the compatibility of basic up-to techniques that are specific to the new languages. We investigate the method on the pi-calculus, the lambda-calculus, and a (call-by-value) lambda-calculus with references.