Selected Papers of the International Joint Conference on Automated Reasoning (IJCAR 2020)

Editors: Nicolas Peltier, Viorica Sofronie-stokkermans

This special issue of LMCS contains extended versions of some of the best papers of the conference IJCAR 2020 (10th International Joint Conference on Automated Reasoning).

1. Quotients of Bounded Natural Functors

Basil Fürer ; Andreas Lochbihler ; Joshua Schneider ; Dmitriy Traytel.
The functorial structure of type constructors is the foundation for many definition and proof principles in higher-order logic (HOL). For example, inductive and coinductive datatypes can be built modularly from bounded natural functors (BNFs), a class of well-behaved type constructors. Composition, fixpoints, and, under certain conditions, subtypes are known to preserve the BNF structure. In this article, we tackle the preservation question for quotients, the last important principle for introducing new types in HOL. We identify sufficient conditions under which a quotient inherits the BNF structure from its underlying type. Surprisingly, lifting the structure in the obvious manner fails for some quotients, a problem that also affects the quotients of polynomial functors used in the Lean proof assistant. We provide a strictly more general lifting scheme that supports such problematic quotients. We extend the Isabelle/HOL proof assistant with a command that automates the registration of a quotient type as a BNF, reducing the proof burden on the user from the full set of BNF axioms to our inheritance conditions. We demonstrate the command's usefulness through several case studies.

2. Verified Approximation Algorithms

Robin Eßmann ; Tobias Nipkow ; Simon Robillard ; Ujkan Sulejmani.
We present the first formal verification of approximation algorithms for NP-complete optimization problems: vertex cover, independent set, set cover, center selection, load balancing, and bin packing. We uncover incompletenesses in existing proofs and improve the approximation ratio in one case. All proofs are uniformly invariant based.

3. Beyond Notations: Hygienic Macro Expansion for Theorem Proving Languages

Sebastian Ullrich ; Leonardo de Moura.
In interactive theorem provers (ITPs), extensible syntax is not only crucial to lower the cognitive burden of manipulating complex mathematical objects, but plays a critical role in developing reusable abstractions in libraries. Most ITPs support such extensions in the form of restrictive "syntax sugar" substitutions and other ad hoc mechanisms, which are too rudimentary to support many desirable abstractions. As a result, libraries are littered with unnecessary redundancy. Tactic languages in these systems are plagued by a seemingly unrelated issue: accidental name capture, which often produces unexpected and counterintuitive behavior. We take ideas from the Scheme family of programming languages and solve these two problems simultaneously by proposing a novel hygienic macro system custom-built for ITPs. We further describe how our approach can be extended to cover type-directed macro expansion resulting in a single, uniform system offering multiple abstraction levels that range from supporting simplest syntax sugars to elaboration of formerly baked-in syntax. We have implemented our new macro system and integrated it into the new version of the Lean theorem prover, Lean 4. Despite its expressivity, the macro system is simple enough that it can easily be integrated into other systems.

4. Formalizing the Face Lattice of Polyhedra

Xavier Allamigeon ; Ricardo D. Katz ; Pierre-Yves Strub.
Faces play a central role in the combinatorial and computational aspects of polyhedra. In this paper, we present the first formalization of faces of polyhedra in the proof assistant Coq. This builds on the formalization of a library providing the basic constructions and operations over polyhedra, including projections, convex hulls and images under linear maps. Moreover, we design a special mechanism which automatically introduces an appropriate representation of a polyhedron or a face, depending on the context of the proof. We demonstrate the usability of this approach by establishing some of the most important combinatorial properties of faces, namely that they constitute a family of graded atomistic and coatomistic lattices closed under interval sublattices. We also prove a theorem due to Balinski on the $d$-connectedness of the adjacency graph of polytopes of dimension $d$.

5. Trakhtenbrot's Theorem in Coq: Finite Model Theory through the Constructive Lens

Dominik Kirst ; Dominique Larchey-Wendling.
We study finite first-order satisfiability (FSAT) in the constructive setting of dependent type theory. Employing synthetic accounts of enumerability and decidability, we give a full classification of FSAT depending on the first-order signature of non-logical symbols. On the one hand, our development focuses on Trakhtenbrot's theorem, stating that FSAT is undecidable as soon as the signature contains an at least binary relation symbol. Our proof proceeds by a many-one reduction chain starting from the Post correspondence problem. On the other hand, we establish the decidability of FSAT for monadic first-order logic, i.e. where the signature only contains at most unary function and relation symbols, as well as the enumerability of FSAT for arbitrary enumerable signatures. To showcase an application of Trakhtenbrot's theorem, we continue our reduction chain with a many-one reduction from FSAT to separation logic. All our results are mechanised in the framework of a growing Coq library of synthetic undecidability proofs.