Volume 17, Issue 2

2021

1. Superposition for Lambda-Free Higher-Order Logic

Alexander Bentkamp ; Jasmin Blanchette ; Simon Cruanes ; Uwe Waldmann.
We introduce refutationally complete superposition calculi for intentional and extensional clausal $\lambda$-free higher-order logic, two formalisms that allow partial application and applied variables. The calculi are parameterized by a term order that need not be fully monotonic, making it possible to employ the $\lambda$-free higher-order lexicographic path and Knuth-Bendix orders. We implemented the calculi in the Zipperposition prover and evaluated them on Isabelle/HOL and TPTP benchmarks. They appear promising as a stepping stone towards complete, highly efficient automatic theorem provers for full higher-order logic.

2. Coalgebraic Semantics for Probabilistic Logic Programming

Tao Gu ; Fabio Zanasi.
Probabilistic logic programming is increasingly important in artificial intelligence and related fields as a formalism to reason about uncertainty. It generalises logic programming with the possibility of annotating clauses with probabilities. This paper proposes a coalgebraic semantics on probabilistic logic programming. Programs are modelled as coalgebras for a certain functor F, and two semantics are given in terms of cofree coalgebras. First, the F-coalgebra yields a semantics in terms of derivation trees. Second, by embedding F into another type G, as cofree G-coalgebra we obtain a `possible worlds' interpretation of programs, from which one may recover the usual distribution semantics of probabilistic logic programming. Furthermore, we show that a similar approach can be used to provide a coalgebraic semantics to weighted logic programming.

3. Semipullbacks of labelled Markov processes

Jan Pachl ; Pedro Sánchez Terraf.
A labelled Markov process (LMP) consists of a measurable space $S$ together with an indexed family of Markov kernels from $S$ to itself. This structure has been used to model probabilistic computations in Computer Science, and one of the main problems in the area is to define and decide whether two LMP $S$ and $S'$ "behave the same". There are two natural categorical definitions of sameness of behavior: $S$ and $S'$ are bisimilar if there exist an LMP $ T$ and measure preserving maps forming a diagram of the shape $ S\leftarrow T \rightarrow{S'}$; and they are behaviorally equivalent if there exist some $ U$ and maps forming a dual diagram $ S\rightarrow U \leftarrow{S'}$. These two notions differ for general measurable spaces but Doberkat (extending a result by Edalat) proved that they coincide for analytic Borel spaces, showing that from every diagram $S\rightarrow U \leftarrow{S'}$ one can obtain a bisimilarity diagram as above. Moreover, the resulting square of measure preserving maps is commutative (a semipullback). In this paper, we extend the previous result to measurable spaces $S$ isomorphic to a universally measurable subset of a Polish space with the trace of the Borel $\sigma$-algebra, using a version of Strassen's theorem on common extensions of finitely additive measures.

4. Direct spectra of Bishop spaces and their limits

Iosif Petrakis.
We apply fundamental notions of Bishop set theory (BST), an informal theory that complements Bishop's theory of sets, to the theory of Bishop spaces, a function-theoretic approach to constructive topology. Within BST we develop the notions of a direct family of sets, of a direct spectrum of Bishop spaces, of the direct limit of a direct spectrum of Bishop spaces, and of the inverse limit of a contravariant direct spectrum of Bishop spaces. Within the extension of Bishop's informal system of constructive mathematics BISH with inductive definitions with rules of countably many premises, we prove the fundamental theorems on the direct and inverse limits of spectra of Bishop spaces and the duality principle between them.

5. Sculptures in Concurrency

Uli Fahrenberg ; Christian Johansen ; Christopher A. Trotter ; Krzysztof Ziemiański.
We give a formalization of Pratt's intuitive sculpting process for higher-dimensional automata (HDA). Intuitively, an HDA is a sculpture if it can be embedded in (i.e., sculpted from) a single higher dimensional cell (hypercube). A first important result of this paper is that not all HDA can be sculpted, exemplified through several natural acyclic HDA, one being the famous "broken box" example of van Glabbeek. Moreover, we show that even the natural operation of unfolding is completely unrelated to sculpting, e.g., there are sculptures whose unfoldings cannot be sculpted. We investigate the expressiveness of sculptures, as a proper subclass of HDA, by showing them to be equivalent to regular ST-structures (an event-based counterpart of HDA) and to (regular) Chu spaces over 3 (in their concurrent interpretation given by Pratt). We believe that our results shed new light on the intuitions behind sculpting as a method of modeling concurrent behavior, showing the precise reaches of its expressiveness. Besides expressiveness, we also develop an algorithm to decide whether an HDA can be sculpted. More importantly, we show that sculptures are equivalent to Euclidean cubical complexes (being the geometrical counterpart of our combinatorial definition), which include the popular PV models used for deadlock detection. This exposes a close connection between geometric and combinatorial models for concurrency which may be of use for both areas.

6. Algebraic Language Theory for Eilenberg--Moore Algebras

Achim Blumensath.
We develop an algebraic language theory based on the notion of an Eilenberg--Moore algebra. In comparison to previous such frameworks the main contribution is the support for algebras with infinitely many sorts and the connection to logic in form of so-called `definable algebras'.

7. Logic for exact real arithmetic

Helmut Schwichtenberg ; Franziskus Wiesnet.
Continuing earlier work of the first author with U. Berger, K. Miyamoto and H. Tsuiki, it is shown how a division algorithm for real numbers given as a stream of signed digits can be extracted from an appropriate formal proof. The property of being a real number represented as a stream is formulated by means of coinductively defined predicates, and formal proofs involve coinduction. The proof assistant Minlog is used to generate the formal proofs and extract their computational content as terms of the underlying theory, a form of type theory for finite or infinite data. Some experiments with running the extracted term are described, after its translation to Haskell.

8. Constructing Higher Inductive Types as Groupoid Quotients

Niccolò Veltri ; Niels van der Weide.
In this paper, we study finitary 1-truncated higher inductive types (HITs) in homotopy type theory. We start by showing that all these types can be constructed from the groupoid quotient. We define an internal notion of signatures for HITs, and for each signature, we construct a bicategory of algebras in 1-types and in groupoids. We continue by proving initial algebra semantics for our signatures. After that, we show that the groupoid quotient induces a biadjunction between the bicategories of algebras in 1-types and in groupoids. Then we construct a biinitial object in the bicategory of algebras in groupoids, which gives the desired algebra. From all this, we conclude that all finitary 1-truncated HITs can be constructed from the groupoid quotient. We present several examples of HITs which are definable using our notion of signature. In particular, we show that each signature gives rise to a HIT corresponding to the freely generated algebraic structure over it. We also start the development of universal algebra in 1-types. We show that the bicategory of algebras has PIE limits, i.e. products, inserters and equifiers, and we prove a version of the first isomorphism theorem for 1-types. Finally, we give an alternative characterization of the foundamental groups of some HITs, exploiting our construction of HITs via the groupoid quotient. All the results are formalized over the UniMath library of univalent mathematics in Coq.

9. LNL-FPC: The Linear/Non-linear Fixpoint Calculus

Bert Lindenhovius ; Michael Mislove ; Vladimir Zamdzhiev.
We describe a type system with mixed linear and non-linear recursive types called LNL-FPC (the linear/non-linear fixpoint calculus). The type system supports linear typing, which enhances the safety properties of programs, but also supports non-linear typing as well, which makes the type system more convenient for programming. Just as in FPC, we show that LNL-FPC supports type-level recursion, which in turn induces term-level recursion. We also provide sound and computationally adequate categorical models for LNL-FPC that describe the categorical structure of the substructural operations of Intuitionistic Linear Logic at all non-linear types, including the recursive ones. In order to do so, we describe a new technique for solving recursive domain equations within cartesian categories by constructing the solutions over pre-embeddings. The type system also enjoys implicit weakening and contraction rules that we are able to model by identifying the canonical comonoid structure of all non-linear types. We also show that the requirements of our abstract model are reasonable by constructing a large class of concrete models that have found applications not only in classical functional programming, but also in emerging programming paradigms that incorporate linear types, such as quantum programming and circuit description programming languages.

10. Reachability Switching Games

John Fearnley ; Martin Gairing ; Matthias Mnich ; Rahul Savani.
We study the problem of deciding the winner of reachability switching games for zero-, one-, and two-player variants. Switching games provide a deterministic analogue of stochastic games. We show that the zero-player case is NL-hard, the one-player case is NP-complete, and that the two-player case is PSPACE-hard and in EXPTIME. For the zero-player case, we also show P-hardness for a succinctly-represented model that maintains the upper bound of NP $\cap$ coNP. For the one- and two-player cases, our results hold in both the natural, explicit model and succinctly-represented model. Our results show that the switching variant of a game is harder in complexity-theoretic terms than the corresponding stochastic version.

11. Failure Trace Semantics for a Process Algebra with Time-outs

Rob van Glabbeek.
This paper extends a standard process algebra with a time-out operator, thereby increasing its absolute expressiveness, while remaining within the realm of untimed process algebra, in the sense that the progress of time is not quantified. Trace and failures equivalence fail to be congruences for this operator; their congruence closure is characterised as failure trace equivalence.

12. DRAT and Propagation Redundancy Proofs Without New Variables

Sam Buss ; Neil Thapen.
We study the complexity of a range of propositional proof systems which allow inference rules of the form: from a set of clauses $\Gamma$ derive the set of clauses $\Gamma \cup \{ C \}$ where, due to some syntactic condition, $\Gamma \cup \{ C \}$ is satisfiable if $\Gamma$ is, but where $\Gamma$ does not necessarily imply $C$. These inference rules include BC, RAT, SPR and PR (respectively short for blocked clauses, resolution asymmetric tautologies, subset propagation redundancy and propagation redundancy), which arose from work in satisfiability (SAT) solving. We introduce a new, more general rule SR (substitution redundancy). If the new clause $C$ is allowed to include new variables then the systems based on these rules are all equivalent to extended resolution. We focus on restricted systems that do not allow new variables. The systems with deletion, where we can delete a clause from our set at any time, are denoted DBC${}^-$, DRAT${}^-$, DSPR${}^-$, DPR${}^-$ and DSR${}^-$. The systems without deletion are BC${}^-$, RAT${}^-$, SPR${}^-$, PR${}^-$ and SR${}^-$. With deletion, we show that DRAT${}^-$, DSPR${}^-$ and DPR${}^-$ are equivalent. By earlier work of Kiesl, Rebola-Pardo and Heule, they are also equivalent to DBC${}^-$. Without deletion, we show that SPR${}^-$ can simulate PR${}^-$ provided only short clauses are inferred by SPR inferences. We also show that many of the well-known "hard" principles have small SPR${}^-$ refutations. These include […]

13. Parametric updates in parametric timed automata

Étienne André ; Didier Lime ; Mathias Ramparison.
We introduce a new class of Parametric Timed Automata (PTAs) where we allow clocks to be compared to parameters in guards, as in classic PTAs, but also to be updated to parameters. We focus here on the EF-emptiness problem: "is the set of parameter valuations for which some given location is reachable in the instantiated timed automaton empty?". This problem is well-known to be undecidable for PTAs, and so it is for our extension. Nonetheless, if we update all clocks each time we compare a clock with a parameter and each time we update a clock to a parameter, we obtain a syntactic subclass for which we can decide the EF-emptiness problem and even perform the exact synthesis of the set of rational valuations such that a given location is reachable. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first non-trivial subclass of PTAs, actually even extended with parametric updates, for which this is possible.

14. Partially Ordered Automata and Piecewise Testability

Tomáš Masopust ; Markus Krötzsch.
Partially ordered automata are automata where the transition relation induces a partial order on states. The expressive power of partially ordered automata is closely related to the expressivity of fragments of first-order logic on finite words or, equivalently, to the language classes of the levels of the Straubing-Thérien hierarchy. Several fragments (levels) have been intensively investigated under various names. For instance, the fragment of first-order formulae with a single existential block of quantifiers in prenex normal form is known as piecewise testable languages or $J$-trivial languages. These languages are characterized by confluent partially ordered DFAs or by complete, confluent, and self-loop-deterministic partially ordered NFAs (ptNFAs for short). In this paper, we study the complexity of basic questions for several types of partially ordered automata on finite words; namely, the questions of inclusion, equivalence, and ($k$-)piecewise testability. The lower-bound complexity boils down to the complexity of universality. The universality problem asks whether a system recognizes all words over its alphabet. For ptNFAs, the complexity of universality decreases if the alphabet is fixed, but it is open if the alphabet may grow with the number of states. We show that deciding universality for general ptNFAs is as hard as for general NFAs. Our proof is a novel and nontrivial extension of our recent construction for self-loop-deterministic partially ordered NFAs, a […]

15. Decidability for Entailments of Symbolic Heaps with Arrays

Daisuke Kimura ; Makoto Tatsuta.
This paper presents two decidability results on the validity checking problem for entailments of symbolic heaps in separation logic with Presburger arithmetic and arrays. The first result is for a system with arrays and existential quantifiers. The correctness of the decision procedure is proved under the condition that sizes of arrays in the succedent are not existentially quantified. This condition is different from that proposed by Brotherston et al. in 2017 and one of them does not imply the other. The main idea is a novel translation from an entailment of symbolic heaps into a formula in Presburger arithmetic. The second result is the decidability for a system with both arrays and lists. The key idea is to extend the unroll collapse technique proposed by Berdine et al. in 2005 to arrays and arithmetic as well as double-linked lists.

16. Computable analysis and notions of continuity in Coq

Florian Steinberg ; Laurent Thery ; Holger Thies.
We give a number of formal proofs of theorems from the field of computable analysis. Many of our results specify executable algorithms that work on infinite inputs by means of operating on finite approximations and are proven correct in the sense of computable analysis. The development is done in the proof assistant Coq and heavily relies on the Incone library for information theoretic continuity. This library is developed by one of the authors and the paper can be used as an introduction to the library as it describes many of its most important features in detail. While the ability to have full executability in a formal development of mathematical statements about real numbers and the like is not a feature that is unique to the Incone library, its original contribution is to adhere to the conventions of computable analysis to provide a general purpose interface for algorithmic reasoning on continuous structures. The results that provide complete computational content include that the algebraic operations and the efficient limit operator on the reals are computable, that certain countably infinite products are isomorphic to spaces of functions, compatibility of the enumeration representation of subsets of natural numbers with the abstract definition of the space of open subsets of the natural numbers, and that continuous realizability implies sequential continuity. We also formalize proofs of non-computational results that support the correctness of our definitions. These […]

17. Presentable signatures and initial semantics

Benedikt Ahrens ; André Hirschowitz ; Ambroise Lafont ; Marco Maggesi.
We present a device for specifying and reasoning about syntax for datatypes, programming languages, and logic calculi. More precisely, we study a notion of "signature" for specifying syntactic constructions. In the spirit of Initial Semantics, we define the "syntax generated by a signature" to be the initial object -- if it exists -- in a suitable category of models. In our framework, the existence of an associated syntax to a signature is not automatically guaranteed. We identify, via the notion of presentation of a signature, a large class of signatures that do generate a syntax. Our (presentable) signatures subsume classical algebraic signatures (i.e., signatures for languages with variable binding, such as the pure lambda calculus) and extend them to include several other significant examples of syntactic constructions. One key feature of our notions of signature, syntax, and presentation is that they are highly compositional, in the sense that complex examples can be obtained by gluing simpler ones. Moreover, through the Initial Semantics approach, our framework provides, beyond the desired algebra of terms, a well-behaved substitution and the induction and recursion principles associated to the syntax. This paper builds upon ideas from a previous attempt by Hirschowitz-Maggesi, which, in turn, was directly inspired by some earlier work of Ghani-Uustalu-Hamana and Matthes-Uustalu. The main results presented in the paper are […]

18. Theories of real addition with and without a predicate for integers

Alexis Bès ; Christian Choffrut.
We show that it is decidable whether or not a relation on the reals definable in the structure $\langle \mathbb{R}, +,<, \mathbb{Z} \rangle$ can be defined in the structure $\langle \mathbb{R}, +,<, 1 \rangle$. This result is achieved by obtaining a topological characterization of $\langle \mathbb{R}, +,<, 1 \rangle$-definable relations in the family of $\langle \mathbb{R}, +,<, \mathbb{Z} \rangle$-definable relations and then by following Muchnik's approach of showing that the characterization of the relation $X$ can be expressed in the logic of $\langle \mathbb{R}, +,<,1, X \rangle$. The above characterization allows us to prove that there is no intermediate structure between $\langle \mathbb{R}, +,<, \mathbb{Z} \rangle$ and $\langle \mathbb{R}, +,<, 1 \rangle$. We also show that a $\langle \mathbb{R}, +,<, \mathbb{Z} \rangle$-definable relation is $\langle \mathbb{R}, +,<, 1 \rangle$-definable if and only if its intersection with every $\langle \mathbb{R}, +,<, 1 \rangle$-definable line is $\langle \mathbb{R}, +,<, 1 \rangle$-definable. This gives a noneffective but simple characterization of $\langle \mathbb{R}, +,<, 1 \rangle$-definable relations.

19. Interface Modeling for Quality and Resource Management

Martijn Hendriks ; Marc Geilen ; Kees Goossens ; Rob de Jong ; Twan Basten.
We develop an interface-modeling framework for quality and resource management that captures configurable working points of hardware and software components in terms of functionality, resource usage and provision, and quality indicators such as performance and energy consumption. We base these aspects on partially-ordered sets to capture quality levels, budget sizes, and functional compatibility. This makes the framework widely applicable and domain independent (although we aim for embedded and cyber-physical systems). The framework paves the way for dynamic (re-)configuration and multi-objective optimization of component-based systems for quality- and resource-management purposes.

20. Star Games and Hydras

Jörg Endrullis ; Jan Willem Klop ; Roy Overbeek.
The recursive path ordering is an established and crucial tool in term rewriting to prove termination. We revisit its presentation by means of some simple rules on trees (or corresponding terms) equipped with a 'star' as control symbol, signifying a command to make that tree (or term) smaller in the order being defined. This leads to star games that are very convenient for proving termination of many rewriting tasks. For instance, using already the simplest star game on finite unlabeled trees, we obtain a very direct proof of termination of the famous Hydra battle, direct in the sense that there is not the usual mention of ordinals. We also include an alternative road to setting up the star games, using a proof method of Buchholz, adapted by van Oostrom, resulting in a quantitative version of the star as control symbol. We conclude with a number of questions and future research directions.

21. A realizability semantics for inductive formal topologies, Church's Thesis and Axiom of Choice

Maria Emilia Maietti ; Samuele Maschio ; Michael Rathjen.
We present a Kleene realizability semantics for the intensional level of the Minimalist Foundation, for short mtt, extended with inductively generated formal topologies, Church's thesis and axiom of choice. This semantics is an extension of the one used to show consistency of the intensional level of the Minimalist Foundation with the axiom of choice and formal Church's thesis in previous work. A main novelty here is that such a semantics is formalized in a constructive theory represented by Aczel's constructive set theory CZF extended with the regular extension axiom.

22. Predicative theories of continuous lattices

Tatsuji Kawai.
We introduce a notion of strong proximity join-semilattice, a predicative notion of continuous lattice which arises as the Karoubi envelop of the category of algebraic lattices. Strong proximity join-semilattices can be characterised by the coalgebras of the lower powerlocale on the wider category of proximity posets (also known as abstract bases or R-structures). Moreover, locally compact locales can be characterised in terms of strong proximity join-semilattices by the coalgebras of the double powerlocale on the category of proximity posets. We also provide more logical characterisation of a strong proximity join-semilattice, called a strong continuous finitary cover, which uses an entailment relation to present the underlying join-semilattice. We show that this structure naturally corresponds to the notion of continuous lattice in the predicative point-free topology. Our result makes the predicative and finitary aspect of the notion of continuous lattice in point-free topology more explicit.

23. Algebraic cocompleteness and finitary functors

Jiří Adámek.
A number of categories is presented that are algebraically complete and cocomplete, i.e., every endofunctor has an initial algebra and a terminal coalgebra. For all finitary (and, more generally, all precontinuous) set functors the initial algebra and terminal coalgebra are proved to carry a canonical partial order with the same ideal CPO-completion. And they also both carry a canonical ultrametric with the same Cauchy completion.

24. Discovering ePassport Vulnerabilities using Bisimilarity

Ross Horne ; Sjouke Mauw.
We uncover privacy vulnerabilities in the ICAO 9303 standard implemented by ePassports worldwide. These vulnerabilities, confirmed by ICAO, enable an ePassport holder who recently passed through a checkpoint to be reidentified without opening their ePassport. This paper explains how bisimilarity was used to discover these vulnerabilities, which exploit the BAC protocol - the original ICAO 9303 standard ePassport authentication protocol - and remains valid for the PACE protocol, which improves on the security of BAC in the latest ICAO 9303 standards. In order to tackle such bisimilarity problems, we develop here a chain of methods for the applied $\pi$-calculus including a symbolic under-approximation of bisimilarity, called open bisimilarity, and a modal logic, called classical FM, for describing and certifying attacks. Evidence is provided to argue for a new scheme for specifying such unlinkability problems that more accurately reflects the capabilities of an attacker.

25. Encoding many-valued logic in $\lambda$-calculus

Fer-Jan de Vries.
We will extend the well-known Church encoding of Boolean logic into $\lambda$-calculus to an encoding of McCarthy's $3$-valued logic into a suitable infinitary extension of $\lambda$-calculus that identifies all unsolvables by $\bot$, where $\bot$ is a fresh constant. This encoding refines to $n$-valued logic for $n\in\{4,5\}$. Such encodings also exist for Church's original $\lambda\mathbf{I}$-calculus. By way of motivation we consider Russell's paradox, exploiting the fact that the same encoding allows us also to calculate truth values of infinite closed propositions in this infinitary setting.