We introduce refutationally complete superposition calculi for intentional and extensional clausal $\lambda$-free higher-order logic, two formalisms that allow partial application and applied variables. The calculi are parameterized by a term order that need not be fully monotonic, making it possible to employ the $\lambda$-free higher-order lexicographic path and Knuth-Bendix orders. We implemented the calculi in the Zipperposition prover and evaluated them on Isabelle/HOL and TPTP benchmarks. They appear promising as a stepping stone towards complete, highly efficient automatic theorem provers for full higher-order logic.

Probabilistic logic programming is increasingly important in artificial intelligence and related fields as a formalism to reason about uncertainty. It generalises logic programming with the possibility of annotating clauses with probabilities. This paper proposes a coalgebraic semantics on probabilistic logic programming. Programs are modelled as coalgebras for a certain functor F, and two semantics are given in terms of cofree coalgebras. First, the F-coalgebra yields a semantics in terms of derivation trees. Second, by embedding F into another type G, as cofree G-coalgebra we obtain a `possible worlds' interpretation of programs, from which one may recover the usual distribution semantics of probabilistic logic programming. Furthermore, we show that a similar approach can be used to provide a coalgebraic semantics to weighted logic programming.

A labelled Markov process (LMP) consists of a measurable space $S$ together with an indexed family of Markov kernels from $S$ to itself. This structure has been used to model probabilistic computations in Computer Science, and one of the main problems in the area is to define and decide whether two LMP $S$ and $S'$ "behave the same". There are two natural categorical definitions of sameness of behavior: $S$ and $S'$ are bisimilar if there exist an LMP $ T$ and measure preserving maps forming a diagram of the shape $ S\leftarrow T \rightarrow{S'}$; and they are behaviorally equivalent if there exist some $ U$ and maps forming a dual diagram $ S\rightarrow U \leftarrow{S'}$. These two notions differ for general measurable spaces but Doberkat (extending a result by Edalat) proved that they coincide for analytic Borel spaces, showing that from every diagram $S\rightarrow U \leftarrow{S'}$ one can obtain a bisimilarity diagram as above. Moreover, the resulting square of measure preserving maps is commutative (a semipullback). In this paper, we extend the previous result to measurable spaces $S$ isomorphic to a universally measurable subset of a Polish space with the trace of the Borel $\sigma$-algebra, using a version of Strassen's theorem on common extensions of finitely additive measures.

We apply fundamental notions of Bishop set theory (BST), an informal theory that complements Bishop's theory of sets, to the theory of Bishop spaces, a function-theoretic approach to constructive topology. Within BST we develop the notions of a direct family of sets, of a direct spectrum of Bishop spaces, of the direct limit of a direct spectrum of Bishop spaces, and of the inverse limit of a contravariant direct spectrum of Bishop spaces. Within the extension of Bishop's informal system of constructive mathematics BISH with inductive definitions with rules of countably many premises, we prove the fundamental theorems on the direct and inverse limits of spectra of Bishop spaces and the duality principle between them.

We give a formalization of Pratt's intuitive sculpting process for higher-dimensional automata (HDA). Intuitively, an HDA is a sculpture if it can be embedded in (i.e., sculpted from) a single higher dimensional cell (hypercube). A first important result of this paper is that not all HDA can be sculpted, exemplified through several natural acyclic HDA, one being the famous "broken box" example of van Glabbeek. Moreover, we show that even the natural operation of unfolding is completely unrelated to sculpting, e.g., there are sculptures whose unfoldings cannot be sculpted. We investigate the expressiveness of sculptures, as a proper subclass of HDA, by showing them to be equivalent to regular ST-structures (an event-based counterpart of HDA) and to (regular) Chu spaces over 3 (in their concurrent interpretation given by Pratt). We believe that our results shed new light on the intuitions behind sculpting as a method of modeling concurrent behavior, showing the precise reaches of its expressiveness. Besides expressiveness, we also develop an algorithm to decide whether an HDA can be sculpted. More importantly, we show that sculptures are equivalent to Euclidean cubical complexes (being the geometrical counterpart of our combinatorial definition), which include the popular PV models used for deadlock detection. This exposes a close connection between geometric and combinatorial models for concurrency which may be of use for both areas.

We develop an algebraic language theory based on the notion of an Eilenberg--Moore algebra. In comparison to previous such frameworks the main contribution is the support for algebras with infinitely many sorts and the connection to logic in form of so-called `definable algebras'.

Continuing earlier work of the first author with U. Berger, K. Miyamoto and H. Tsuiki, it is shown how a division algorithm for real numbers given as a stream of signed digits can be extracted from an appropriate formal proof. The property of being a real number represented as a stream is formulated by means of coinductively defined predicates, and formal proofs involve coinduction. The proof assistant Minlog is used to generate the formal proofs and extract their computational content as terms of the underlying theory, a form of type theory for finite or infinite data. Some experiments with running the extracted term are described, after its translation to Haskell.

In this paper, we study finitary 1-truncated higher inductive types (HITs) in homotopy type theory. We start by showing that all these types can be constructed from the groupoid quotient. We define an internal notion of signatures for HITs, and for each signature, we construct a bicategory of algebras in 1-types and in groupoids. We continue by proving initial algebra semantics for our signatures. After that, we show that the groupoid quotient induces a biadjunction between the bicategories of algebras in 1-types and in groupoids. Then we construct a biinitial object in the bicategory of algebras in groupoids, which gives the desired algebra. From all this, we conclude that all finitary 1-truncated HITs can be constructed from the groupoid quotient. We present several examples of HITs which are definable using our notion of signature. In particular, we show that each signature gives rise to a HIT corresponding to the freely generated algebraic structure over it. We also start the development of universal algebra in 1-types. We show that the bicategory of algebras has PIE limits, i.e. products, inserters and equifiers, and we prove a version of the first isomorphism theorem for 1-types. Finally, we give an alternative characterization of the foundamental groups of some HITs, exploiting our construction of HITs via the groupoid quotient. All the results are formalized over the UniMath library of univalent mathematics in Coq.

We describe a type system with mixed linear and non-linear recursive types called LNL-FPC (the linear/non-linear fixpoint calculus). The type system supports linear typing, which enhances the safety properties of programs, but also supports non-linear typing as well, which makes the type system more convenient for programming. Just as in FPC, we show that LNL-FPC supports type-level recursion, which in turn induces term-level recursion. We also provide sound and computationally adequate categorical models for LNL-FPC that describe the categorical structure of the substructural operations of Intuitionistic Linear Logic at all non-linear types, including the recursive ones. In order to do so, we describe a new technique for solving recursive domain equations within cartesian categories by constructing the solutions over pre-embeddings. The type system also enjoys implicit weakening and contraction rules that we are able to model by identifying the canonical comonoid structure of all non-linear types. We also show that the requirements of our abstract model are reasonable by constructing a large class of concrete models that have found applications not only in classical functional programming, but also in emerging programming paradigms that incorporate linear types, such as quantum programming and circuit description programming languages.

We study the problem of deciding the winner of reachability switching games for zero-, one-, and two-player variants. Switching games provide a deterministic analogue of stochastic games. We show that the zero-player case is NL-hard, the one-player case is NP-complete, and that the two-player case is PSPACE-hard and in EXPTIME. For the zero-player case, we also show P-hardness for a succinctly-represented model that maintains the upper bound of NP $\cap$ coNP. For the one- and two-player cases, our results hold in both the natural, explicit model and succinctly-represented model. Our results show that the switching variant of a game is harder in complexity-theoretic terms than the corresponding stochastic version.

This paper extends a standard process algebra with a time-out operator, thereby increasing its absolute expressiveness, while remaining within the realm of untimed process algebra, in the sense that the progress of time is not quantified. Trace and failures equivalence fail to be congruences for this operator; their congruence closure is characterised as failure trace equivalence.

We study the complexity of a range of propositional proof systems which allow inference rules of the form: from a set of clauses $\Gamma$ derive the set of clauses $\Gamma \cup \{ C \}$ where, due to some syntactic condition, $\Gamma \cup \{ C \}$ is satisfiable if $\Gamma$ is, but where $\Gamma$ does not necessarily imply $C$. These inference rules include BC, RAT, SPR and PR (respectively short for blocked clauses, resolution asymmetric tautologies, subset propagation redundancy and propagation redundancy), which arose from work in satisfiability (SAT) solving. We introduce a new, more general rule SR (substitution redundancy). If the new clause $C$ is allowed to include new variables then the systems based on these rules are all equivalent to extended resolution. We focus on restricted systems that do not allow new variables. The systems with deletion, where we can delete a clause from our set at any time, are denoted DBC${}^-$, DRAT${}^-$, DSPR${}^-$, DPR${}^-$ and DSR${}^-$. The systems without deletion are BC${}^-$, RAT${}^-$, SPR${}^-$, PR${}^-$ and SR${}^-$. With deletion, we show that DRAT${}^-$, DSPR${}^-$ and DPR${}^-$ are equivalent. By earlier work of Kiesl, Rebola-Pardo and Heule, they are also equivalent to DBC${}^-$. Without deletion, we show that SPR${}^-$ can simulate PR${}^-$ provided only short clauses are inferred by SPR inferences. We also show that many of the well-known "hard" principles have small SPR${}^-$ refutations. These include […]