Volume 18, Issue 2


1. Beyond Notations: Hygienic Macro Expansion for Theorem Proving Languages

Sebastian Ullrich ; Leonardo de Moura.
In interactive theorem provers (ITPs), extensible syntax is not only crucial to lower the cognitive burden of manipulating complex mathematical objects, but plays a critical role in developing reusable abstractions in libraries. Most ITPs support such extensions in the form of restrictive "syntax sugar" substitutions and other ad hoc mechanisms, which are too rudimentary to support many desirable abstractions. As a result, libraries are littered with unnecessary redundancy. Tactic languages in these systems are plagued by a seemingly unrelated issue: accidental name capture, which often produces unexpected and counterintuitive behavior. We take ideas from the Scheme family of programming languages and solve these two problems simultaneously by proposing a novel hygienic macro system custom-built for ITPs. We further describe how our approach can be extended to cover type-directed macro expansion resulting in a single, uniform system offering multiple abstraction levels that range from supporting simplest syntax sugars to elaboration of formerly baked-in syntax. We have implemented our new macro system and integrated it into the new version of the Lean theorem prover, Lean 4. Despite its expressivity, the macro system is simple enough that it can easily be integrated into other systems.

2. Uniform Interpolants in EUF: Algorithms using DAG-representations

Silvio Ghilardi ; Alessandro Gianola ; Deepak Kapur.
The concept of uniform interpolant for a quantifier-free formula from a given formula with a list of symbols, while well-known in the logic literature, has been unknown to the formal methods and automated reasoning community for a long time. This concept is precisely defined. Two algorithms for computing quantifier-free uniform interpolants in the theory of equality over uninterpreted symbols (EUF) endowed with a list of symbols to be eliminated are proposed. The first algorithm is non-deterministic and generates a uniform interpolant expressed as a disjunction of conjunctions of literals, whereas the second algorithm gives a compact representation of a uniform interpolant as a conjunction of Horn clauses. Both algorithms exploit efficient dedicated DAG representations of terms. Correctness and completeness proofs are supplied, using arguments combining rewrite techniques with model theory.

3. A Flexible Proof Format for SAT Solver-Elaborator Communication

Seulkee Baek ; Mario Carneiro ; Marijn J. H. Heule.
We introduce FRAT, a new proof format for unsatisfiable SAT problems, and its associated toolchain. Compared to DRAT, the FRAT format allows solvers to include more information in proofs to reduce the computational cost of subsequent elaboration to LRAT. The format is easy to parse forward and backward, and it is extensible to future proof methods. The provision of optional proof steps allows SAT solver developers to balance implementation effort against elaboration time, with little to no overhead on solver time. We benchmark our FRAT toolchain against a comparable DRAT toolchain and confirm >84% median reduction in elaboration time and >94% median decrease in peak memory usage.

4. Gluing resource proof-structures: inhabitation and inverting the Taylor expansion

Giulio Guerrieri ; Luc Pellissier ; Lorenzo Tortora de Falco.
A Multiplicative-Exponential Linear Logic (MELL) proof-structure can be expanded into a set of resource proof-structures: its Taylor expansion. We introduce a new criterion characterizing (and deciding in the finite case) those sets of resource proof-structures that are part of the Taylor expansion of some MELL proof-structure, through a rewriting system acting both on resource and MELL proof-structures. We also prove semi-decidability of the type inhabitation problem for cut-free MELL proof-structures.

5. Probabilistic Rewriting and Asymptotic Behaviour: on Termination and Unique Normal Forms

Claudia Faggian.
While a mature body of work supports the study of rewriting systems, abstract tools for Probabilistic Rewriting are still limited. In this paper we study the question of uniqueness of the result (unique limit distribution), and develop a set of proof techniques to analyze and compare reduction strategies. The goal is to have tools to support the operational analysis of probabilistic calculi (such as probabilistic lambda-calculi) where evaluation allows for different reduction choices (hence different reduction paths).

6. A Near-Optimal Parallel Algorithm for Joining Binary Relations

Bas Ketsman ; Dan Suciu ; Yufei Tao.
We present a constant-round algorithm in the massively parallel computation (MPC) model for evaluating a natural join where every input relation has two attributes. Our algorithm achieves a load of $\tilde{O}(m/p^{1/\rho})$ where $m$ is the total size of the input relations, $p$ is the number of machines, $\rho$ is the join's fractional edge covering number, and $\tilde{O}(.)$ hides a polylogarithmic factor. The load matches a known lower bound up to a polylogarithmic factor. At the core of the proposed algorithm is a new theorem (which we name the "isolated cartesian product theorem") that provides fresh insight into the problem's mathematical structure. Our result implies that the subgraph enumeration problem, where the goal is to report all the occurrences of a constant-sized subgraph pattern, can be settled optimally (up to a polylogarithmic factor) in the MPC model.

7. Enumerating Answers to First-Order Queries over Databases of Low Degree

Arnaud Durand ; Nicole Schweikardt ; Luc Segoufin.
A class of relational databases has low degree if for all $\delta>0$, all but finitely many databases in the class have degree at most $n^{\delta}$, where $n$ is the size of the database. Typical examples are databases of bounded degree or of degree bounded by $\log n$. It is known that over a class of databases having low degree, first-order boolean queries can be checked in pseudo-linear time, i.e.\ for all $\epsilon>0$ in time bounded by $n^{1+\epsilon}$. We generalize this result by considering query evaluation. We show that counting the number of answers to a query can be done in pseudo-linear time and that after a pseudo-linear time preprocessing we can test in constant time whether a given tuple is a solution to a query or enumerate the answers to a query with constant delay.

8. Circular Proofs as Session-Typed Processes: A Local Validity Condition

Farzaneh Derakhshan ; Frank Pfenning.
Proof theory provides a foundation for studying and reasoning about programming languages, most directly based on the well-known Curry-Howard isomorphism between intuitionistic logic and the typed lambda-calculus. More recently, a correspondence between intuitionistic linear logic and the session-typed pi-calculus has been discovered. In this paper, we establish an extension of the latter correspondence for a fragment of substructural logic with least and greatest fixed points. We describe the computational interpretation of the resulting infinitary proof system as session-typed processes, and provide an effectively decidable local criterion to recognize mutually recursive processes corresponding to valid circular proofs as introduced by Fortier and Santocanale. We show that our algorithm imposes a stricter requirement than Fortier and Santocanale's guard condition, but is local and compositional and therefore more suitable as the basis for a programming language.

9. Determinisability of register and timed automata

Lorenzo Clemente ; Sławomir Lasota ; Radosław Piórkowski.
The deterministic membership problem for timed automata asks whether the timed language given by a nondeterministic timed automaton can be recognised by a deterministic timed automaton. An analogous problem can be stated in the setting of register automata. We draw the complete decidability/complexity landscape of the deterministic membership problem, in the setting of both register and timed automata. For register automata, we prove that the deterministic membership problem is decidable when the input automaton is a nondeterministic one-register automaton (possibly with epsilon transitions) and the number of registers of the output deterministic register automaton is fixed. This is optimal: We show that in all the other cases the problem is undecidable, i.e., when either (1) the input nondeterministic automaton has two registers or more (even without epsilon transitions), or (2) it uses guessing, or (3) the number of registers of the output deterministic automaton is not fixed. The landscape for timed automata follows a similar pattern. We show that the problem is decidable when the input automaton is a one-clock nondeterministic timed automaton without epsilon transitions and the number of clocks of the output deterministic timed automaton is fixed. Again, this is optimal: We show that the problem in all the other cases is undecidable, i.e., when either (1) the input nondeterministic timed automaton has two clocks or more, or (2) it uses epsilon transitions, or (3) the […]

10. Formalizing the Face Lattice of Polyhedra

Xavier Allamigeon ; Ricardo D. Katz ; Pierre-Yves Strub.
Faces play a central role in the combinatorial and computational aspects of polyhedra. In this paper, we present the first formalization of faces of polyhedra in the proof assistant Coq. This builds on the formalization of a library providing the basic constructions and operations over polyhedra, including projections, convex hulls and images under linear maps. Moreover, we design a special mechanism which automatically introduces an appropriate representation of a polyhedron or a face, depending on the context of the proof. We demonstrate the usability of this approach by establishing some of the most important combinatorial properties of faces, namely that they constitute a family of graded atomistic and coatomistic lattices closed under interval sublattices. We also prove a theorem due to Balinski on the $d$-connectedness of the adjacency graph of polytopes of dimension $d$.