Editors: Maurice ter Beek, Marjan Sirjani

A recurrent task in coordinated systems is managing (estimating, predicting, or controlling) signals that vary in space, such as distributed sensed data or computation outcomes. Especially in large-scale settings, the problem can be addressed through decentralised and situated computing systems: nodes can locally sense, process, and act upon signals, and coordinate with neighbours to implement collective strategies. Accordingly, in this work we devise distributed coordination strategies for the estimation of a spatial phenomenon through collaborative adaptive sampling. Our design is based on the idea of dynamically partitioning space into regions that compete and grow/shrink to provide accurate aggregate sampling. Such regions hence define a sort of virtualised space that is "fluid", since its structure adapts in response to pressure forces exerted by the underlying phenomenon. We provide an adaptive sampling algorithm in the field-based coordination framework, and prove it is self-stabilising and locally optimal. Finally, we verify by simulation that the proposed algorithm effectively carries out a spatially adaptive sampling while maintaining a tuneable trade-off between accuracy and efficiency.

We tackle the problem of establishing the soundness of approximate bisimilarity with respect to PCTL and its relaxed semantics. To this purpose, we consider a notion of bisimilarity inspired by the one introduced by Desharnais, Laviolette, and Tracol, and parametric with respect to an approximation error $\delta$, and to the depth $n$ of the observation along traces. Essentially, our soundness theorem establishes that, when a state $q$ satisfies a given formula up-to error $\delta$ and steps $n$, and $q$ is bisimilar to $q'$ up-to error $\delta'$ and enough steps, we prove that $q'$ also satisfies the formula up-to a suitable error $\delta"$ and steps $n$. The new error $\delta"$ is computed from $\delta$, $\delta'$ and the formula, and only depends linearly on $n$. We provide a detailed overview of our soundness proof. We extend our bisimilarity notion to families of states, thus obtaining an asymptotic equivalence on such families. We then consider an asymptotic satisfaction relation for PCTL formulae, and prove that asymptotically equivalent families of states asymptotically satisfy the same formulae.

We introduce a meta-model based on formal languages, dubbed formal choreographic languages, to study message-passing systems. Our framework allows us to generalise standard constructions from the literature and to compare them. In particular, we consider notions such as global view, local view, and projections from the former to the latter. The correctness of local views projected from global views is characterised in terms of a closure property. We consider a number of communication properties -- such as (dead)lock-freedom -- and give conditions on formal choreographic languages to guarantee them. Finally, we show how formal choreographic languages can capture existing formalisms; specifically we consider communicating finite-state machines, choreography automata, and multiparty session types. Notably, formal choreographic languages, differently from most approaches in the literature, can naturally model systems exhibiting non-regular behaviour.

Existing models for the analysis of concurrent processes tend to focus on fail-stop failures, where processes are either working or permanently stopped, and their state (working/stopped) is known. In fact, systems are often affected by grey failures: failures that are latent, possibly transient, and may affect the system in subtle ways that later lead to major issues (such as crashes, limited availability, overload). We introduce a model of actor-based systems with grey failures, based on two interlinked layers: an actor model, given as an asynchronous process calculus with discrete time, and a failure model that represents failure patterns to inject in the system. Our failure model captures not only fail-stop node and link failures, but also grey failures (e.g., partial, transient). We give a behavioural equivalence relation based on weak barbed bisimulation to compare systems on the basis of their ability to recover from failures, and on this basis we define some desirable properties of reliable systems. By doing so, we reduce the problem of checking reliability properties of systems to the problem of checking bisimulation.