Volume 19, Issue 4


1. Non-Deterministic Functions as Non-Deterministic Processes (Extended Version)

Joseph W. N. Paulus ; Daniele Nantes-Sobrinho ; Jorge A. Pérez.
We study encodings of the lambda-calculus into the pi-calculus in the unexplored case of calculi with non-determinism and failures. On the sequential side, we consider lambdafail, a new non-deterministic calculus in which intersection types control resources (terms); on the concurrent side, we consider spi, a pi-calculus in which non-determinism and failure rest upon a Curry-Howard correspondence between linear logic and session types. We present a typed encoding of lambdafail into spi and establish its correctness. Our encoding precisely explains the interplay of non-deterministic and fail-prone evaluation in lambdafail via typed processes in spi. In particular, it shows how failures in sequential evaluation (absence/excess of resources) can be neatly codified as interaction protocols.

2. Finding Cut-Offs in Leaderless Rendez-Vous Protocols is Easy

A. R. Balasubramanian ; Javier Esparza ; Mikhail Raskin.
In rendez-vous protocols an arbitrarily large number of indistinguishable finite-state agents interact in pairs. The cut-off problem asks if there exists a number $B$ such that all initial configurations of the protocol with at least $B$ agents in a given initial state can reach a final configuration with all agents in a given final state. In a recent paper (Horn and Sangnier, CONCUR 2020), Horn and Sangnier proved that the cut-off problem is decidable (and at least as hard as the Petri net reachability problem) for protocols with a leader, and in EXPSPACE for leaderless protocols. Further, for the special class of symmetric protocols they reduce these bounds to PSPACE and NP, respectively. The problem of lowering these upper bounds or finding matching lower bounds was left open. We show that the cut-off problem is P-complete for leaderless protocols and in NC for leaderless symmetric protocols. Further, we also consider a variant of the cut-off problem suggested in (Horn and Sangnier, CONCUR 2020), which we call the bounded-loss cut-off problem and prove that this problem is P-complete for leaderless protocols and NL-complete for leaderless symmetric protocols. Finally, by reusing some of the techniques applied for the analysis of leaderless protocols, we show that the cut-off problem for symmetric protocols with a leader is NP-complete, thereby improving upon all the elementary upper bounds of (Horn and Sangnier, CONCUR 2020).

3. Impure Simplicial Complexes: Complete Axiomatization

Rojo Randrianomentsoa ; Hans van Ditmarsch ; Roman Kuznets.
Combinatorial topology is used in distributed computing to model concurrency and asynchrony. The basic structure in combinatorial topology is the simplicial complex, a collection of subsets called simplices of a set of vertices, closed under containment. Pure simplicial complexes describe message passing in asynchronous systems where all processes (agents) are alive, whereas impure simplicial complexes describe message passing in synchronous systems where processes may be dead (have crashed). Properties of impure simplicial complexes can be described in a three-valued multi-agent epistemic logic where the third value represents formulae that are undefined, e.g., the knowledge and local propositions of dead agents. In this work we present an axiomatization for the logic of the class of impure complexes and show soundness and completeness. The completeness proof involves the novel construction of the canonical simplicial model and requires a careful manipulation of undefined formulae.

4. Locality and Centrality: The Variety ZG

Antoine Amarilli ; Charles Paperman.
We study the variety ZG of monoids where the elements that belong to a group are central, i.e., commute with all other elements. We show that ZG is local, that is, the semidirect product ZG * D of ZG by definite semigroups is equal to LZG, the variety of semigroups where all local monoids are in ZG. Our main result is thus: ZG * D = LZG. We prove this result using Straubing's delay theorem, by considering paths in the category of idempotents. In the process, we obtain the characterization ZG = MNil \vee Com, and also characterize the ZG languages, i.e., the languages whose syntactic monoid is in ZG: they are precisely the languages that are finite unions of disjoint shuffles of singleton languages and regular commutative languages.

5. Verifying an Effect-Handler-Based Define-By-Run Reverse-Mode AD Library

Paulo Emílio de Vilhena ; François Pottier.
We apply program verification technology to the problem of specifying and verifying automatic differentiation (AD) algorithms. We focus on define-by-run, a style of AD where the program that must be differentiated is executed and monitored by the automatic differentiation algorithm. We begin by asking, "what is an implementation of AD?" and "what does it mean for an implementation of AD to be correct?" We answer these questions both at an informal level, in precise English prose, and at a formal level, using types and logical assertions. After answering these broad questions, we focus on a specific implementation of AD, which involves a number of subtle programming-language features, including dynamically allocated mutable state, first-class functions, and effect handlers. We present a machine-checked proof, expressed in a modern variant of Separation Logic, of its correctness. We view this result as an advanced exercise in program verification, with potential future applications to the verification of more realistic automatic differentiation systems and of other software components that exploit delimited-control effects.

6. Subgame-perfect Equilibria in Mean-payoff Games (journal version)

Léonard Brice ; Marie van den Bogaard ; Jean-François Raskin.
In this paper, we provide an effective characterization of all the subgame-perfect equilibria in infinite duration games played on finite graphs with mean-payoff objectives. To this end, we introduce the notion of requirement, and the notion of negotiation function. We establish that the plays that are supported by SPEs are exactly those that are consistent with a fixed point of the negotiation function. Finally, we use that characterization to prove that the SPE threshold problem, who status was left open in the literature, is decidable.

7. A coherent differential PCF

Thomas Ehrhard.
The categorical models of the differential lambda-calculus are additive categories because of the Leibniz rule which requires the summation of two expressions. This means that, as far as the differential lambda-calculus and differential linear logic are concerned, these models feature finite non-determinism and indeed these languages are essentially non-deterministic. In a previous paper we introduced a categorical framework for differentiation which does not require additivity and is compatible with deterministic models such as coherence spaces and probabilistic models such as probabilistic coherence spaces. Based on this semantics we develop a syntax of a deterministic version of the differential lambda-calculus. One nice feature of this new approach to differentiation is that it is compatible with general fixpoints of terms, so our language is actually a differential extension of PCF for which we provide a fully deterministic operational semantics.

8. Token Games and History-Deterministic Quantitative-Automata

Udi Boker ; Karoliina Lehtinen.
A nondeterministic automaton is history-deterministic if its nondeterminism can be resolved by only considering the prefix of the word read so far. Due to their good compositional properties, history-deterministic automata are useful in solving games and synthesis problems. Deciding whether a given nondeterministic automaton is history-deterministic (the HDness problem) is generally a difficult task, which can involve an exponential procedure, or even be undecidable, as is the case for example with pushdown automata. Token games provide a PTime solution to the HDness problem of Büchi and coBüchi automata, and it is conjectured that 2-token games characterise HDness for all $\omega$-regular automata. We extend token games to the quantitative setting and analyse their potential to help deciding HDness of quantitative automata. In particular, we show that 1-token games characterise HDness for all quantitative (and Boolean) automata on finite words, as well as discounted-sum (DSum), Inf and Reachability automata on infinite words, and that 2-token games characterise HDness of LimInf and LimSup automata, as well as Sup automata on infinite words. Using these characterisations, we provide solutions to the HDness problem of Safety, Reachability, Inf and Sup automata on finite and infinite words in PTime, of DSum automata on finite and infinite words in NP$\cap$co-NP, of LimSup automata in quasipolynomial time, and of LimInf automata in exponential time, where the latter two are […]

9. The Power-Set Construction for Tree Algebras

Achim Blumensath.
We study power-set operations on classes of trees and tree algebras. Our main result consists of a distributive law between the tree monad and the upwards-closed power-set monad, in the case where all trees are assumed to be linear. For non-linear ones, we prove that such a distributive law does not exist.

10. A categorical characterization of relative entropy on standard Borel spaces

Nicolas Gagne ; Prakash Panangaden.
We give a categorical treatment, in the spirit of Baez and Fritz, of relative entropy for probability distributions defined on standard Borel spaces. We define a category suitable for reasoning about statistical inference on standard Borel spaces. We define relative entropy as a functor into Lawvere's category and we show convexity, lower semicontinuity and uniqueness.

11. Making first order linear logic a generating grammar

Sergey Slavnov.
It is known that different categorial grammars have surface representation in a fragment of first order multiplicative linear logic (MLL1). We show that the fragment of interest is equivalent to the recently introduced extended tensor type calculus (ETTC). ETTC is a calculus of specific typed terms, which represent tuples of strings, more precisely bipartite graphs decorated with strings. Types are derived from linear logic formulas, and rules correspond to concrete operations on these string-labeled graphs, so that they can be conveniently visualized. This provides the above mentioned fragment of MLL1 that is relevant for language modeling not only with some alternative syntax and intuitive geometric representation, but also with an intrinsic deductive system, which has been absent. In this work we consider a non-trivial notationally enriched variation of the previously introduced ETTC, which allows more concise and transparent computations. We present both a cut-free sequent calculus and a natural deduction formalism.

12. Aperiodicity, Star-freeness, and First-order Logic Definability of Operator Precedence Languages

Dino Mandrioli ; Matteo Pradella ; Stefano Crespi Reghizzi.
A classic result in formal language theory is the equivalence among non-counting, or aperiodic, regular languages, and languages defined through star-free regular expressions, or first-order logic. Past attempts to extend this result beyond the realm of regular languages have met with difficulties: for instance it is known that star-free tree languages may violate the non-counting property and there are aperiodic tree languages that cannot be defined through first-order logic. We extend such classic equivalence results to a significant family of deterministic context-free languages, the operator-precedence languages (OPL), which strictly includes the widely investigated visibly pushdown, alias input-driven, family and other structured context-free languages. The OP model originated in the '60s for defining programming languages and is still used by high performance compilers; its rich algebraic properties have been investigated initially in connection with grammar learning and recently completed with further closure properties and with monadic second order logic definition. We introduce an extension of regular expressions, the OP-expressions (OPE) which define the OPLs and, under the star-free hypothesis, define first-order definable and non-counting OPLs. Then, we prove, through a fairly articulated grammar transformation, that aperiodic OPLs are first-order definable. Thus, the classic equivalence of star-freeness, aperiodicity, and first-order definability is […]

13. A model of actors and grey failures

Laura Bocchi ; Julien Lange ; Simon Thompson ; A. Laura Voinea.
Existing models for the analysis of concurrent processes tend to focus on fail-stop failures, where processes are either working or permanently stopped, and their state (working/stopped) is known. In fact, systems are often affected by grey failures: failures that are latent, possibly transient, and may affect the system in subtle ways that later lead to major issues (such as crashes, limited availability, overload). We introduce a model of actor-based systems with grey failures, based on two interlinked layers: an actor model, given as an asynchronous process calculus with discrete time, and a failure model that represents failure patterns to inject in the system. Our failure model captures not only fail-stop node and link failures, but also grey failures (e.g., partial, transient). We give a behavioural equivalence relation based on weak barbed bisimulation to compare systems on the basis of their ability to recover from failures, and on this basis we define some desirable properties of reliable systems. By doing so, we reduce the problem of checking reliability properties of systems to the problem of checking bisimulation.

14. FTMPST: Fault-Tolerant Multiparty Session Types

Kirstin Peters ; Uwe Nestmann ; Christoph Wagner.
Multiparty session types are designed to abstractly capture the structure of communication protocols and verify behavioural properties. One important such property is progress, i.e., the absence of deadlock. Distributed algorithms often resemble multiparty communication protocols. But proving their properties, in particular termination that is closely related to progress, can be elaborate. Since distributed algorithms are often designed to cope with faults, a first step towards using session types to verify distributed algorithms is to integrate fault-tolerance. We extend multiparty session types to cope with system failures such as unreliable communication and process crashes. Moreover, we augment the semantics of processes by failure patterns that can be used to represent system requirements (as, e.g., failure detectors). To illustrate our approach we analyse a variant of the well-known rotating coordinator algorithm by Chandra and Toueg.

15. Fine-Grained Complexity of Regular Path Queries

Katrin Casel ; Markus L. Schmid.
A regular path query (RPQ) is a regular expression q that returns all node pairs (u, v) from a graph database that are connected by an arbitrary path labelled with a word from L(q). The obvious algorithmic approach to RPQ-evaluation (called PG-approach), i.e., constructing the product graph between an NFA for q and the graph database, is appealing due to its simplicity and also leads to efficient algorithms. However, it is unclear whether the PG-approach is optimal. We address this question by thoroughly investigating which upper complexity bounds can be achieved by the PG-approach, and we complement these with conditional lower bounds (in the sense of the fine-grained complexity framework). A special focus is put on enumeration and delay bounds, as well as the data complexity perspective. A main insight is that we can achieve optimal (or near optimal) algorithms with the PG-approach, but the delay for enumeration is rather high (linear in the database). We explore three successful approaches towards enumeration with sub-linear delay: super-linear preprocessing, approximations of the solution sets, and restricted classes of RPQs.

16. Computing the Density of the Positivity Set for Linear Recurrence Sequences

Edon Kelmendi.
The set of indices that correspond to the positive entries of a sequence of numbers is called its positivity set. In this paper, we study the density of the positivity set of a given linear recurrence sequence, that is the question of how much more frequent are the positive entries compared to the non-positive ones. We show that one can compute this density to arbitrary precision, as well as decide whether it is equal to zero (or one). If the sequence is diagonalisable, we prove that its positivity set is finite if and only if its density is zero. Further, arithmetic properties of densities are treated, in particular we prove that it is decidable whether the density is a rational number, given that the recurrence sequence has at most one pair of dominant complex roots. Finally, we generalise all these results to symbolic orbits of linear dynamical systems, thereby showing that one can decide various properties of such systems, up to a set of density zero.

17. Rewriting with Acyclic Queries: Mind Your Head

Gaetano Geck ; Jens Keppeler ; Thomas Schwentick ; Christopher Spinrath.
The paper studies the rewriting problem, that is, the decision problem whether, for a given conjunctive query $Q$ and a set $\mathcal{V}$ of views, there is a conjunctive query $Q'$ over $\mathcal{V}$ that is equivalent to $Q$, for cases where the query, the views, and/or the desired rewriting are acyclic or even more restricted. It shows that, if $Q$ itself is acyclic, an acyclic rewriting exists if there is any rewriting. An analogous statement also holds for free-connex acyclic, hierarchical, and q-hierarchical queries. Regarding the complexity of the rewriting problem, the paper identifies a border between tractable and (presumably) intractable variants of the rewriting problem: for schemas of bounded arity, the acyclic rewriting problem is NP-hard, even if both $Q$ and the views in $\mathcal{V}$ are acyclic or hierarchical. However, it becomes tractable if the views are free-connex acyclic (i.e., in a nutshell, their body is (i) acyclic and (ii) remains acyclic if their head is added as an additional atom).

18. Arena-Independent Finite-Memory Determinacy in Stochastic Games

Patricia Bouyer ; Youssouf Oualhadj ; Mickael Randour ; Pierre Vandenhove.
We study stochastic zero-sum games on graphs, which are prevalent tools to model decision-making in presence of an antagonistic opponent in a random environment. In this setting, an important question is the one of strategy complexity: what kinds of strategies are sufficient or required to play optimally (e.g., randomization or memory requirements)? Our contributions further the understanding of arena-independent finite-memory (AIFM) determinacy, i.e., the study of objectives for which memory is needed, but in a way that only depends on limited parameters of the game graphs. First, we show that objectives for which pure AIFM strategies suffice to play optimally also admit pure AIFM subgame perfect strategies. Second, we show that we can reduce the study of objectives for which pure AIFM strategies suffice in two-player stochastic games to the easier study of one-player stochastic games (i.e., Markov decision processes). Third, we characterize the sufficiency of AIFM strategies through two intuitive properties of objectives. This work extends a line of research started on deterministic games to stochastic ones.

19. Simulation by Rounds of Letter-to-Letter Transducers

Antonio Abu Nassar ; Shaull Almagor.
Letter-to-letter transducers are a standard formalism for modeling reactive systems. Often, two transducers that model similar systems differ locally from one another, by behaving similarly, up to permutations of the input and output letters within "rounds". In this work, we introduce and study notions of simulation by rounds and equivalence by rounds of transducers. In our setting, words are partitioned to consecutive subwords of a fixed length $k$, called rounds. Then, a transducer $\mathcal{T}_1$ is $k$-round simulated by transducer $\mathcal{T}_2$ if, intuitively, for every input word $x$, we can permute the letters within each round in $x$, such that the output of $\mathcal{T}_2$ on the permuted word is itself a permutation of the output of $\mathcal{T}_1$ on $x$. Finally, two transducers are $k$-round equivalent if they simulate each other. We solve two main decision problems, namely whether $\mathcal{T}_2$ $k$-round simulates $\mathcal{T}_1$ (1) when $k$ is given as input, and (2) for an existentially quantified $k$. We demonstrate the usefulness of the definitions by applying them to process symmetry: a setting in which a permutation in the identities of processes in a multi-process system naturally gives rise to two transducers, whose $k$-round equivalence corresponds to stability against such permutations.

20. A Trichotomy for Regular Trail Queries

Wim Martens ; Matthias Niewerth ; Tina Popp.
Regular path queries (RPQs) are an essential component of graph query languages. Such queries consider a regular expression r and a directed edge-labeled graph G and search for paths in G for which the sequence of labels is in the language of r. In order to avoid having to consider infinitely many paths, some database engines restrict such paths to be trails, that is, they only consider paths without repeated edges. In this paper we consider the evaluation problem for RPQs under trail semantics, in the case where the expression is fixed. We show that, in this setting, there exists a trichotomy. More precisely, the complexity of RPQ evaluation divides the regular languages into the finite languages, the class Ttract (for which the problem is tractable), and the rest. Interestingly, the tractable class in the trichotomy is larger than for the trichotomy for simple paths, discovered by Bagan, Bonifati, and Groz [JCSS 2020]. In addition to this trichotomy result, we also study characterizations of the tractable class, its expressivity, the recognition problem, closure properties, and show how the decision problem can be extended to the enumeration problem, which is relevant to practice.

21. Overlap Algebras as Almost Discrete Locales

Francesco Ciraulo.
Boolean locales are "almost discrete", in the sense that a spatial Boolean locale is just a discrete locale (that is, it corresponds to the frame of open subsets of a discrete space, namely the powerset of a set). This basic fact, however, cannot be proven constructively, that is, over intuitionistic logic, as it requires the full law of excluded middle (LEM). In fact, discrete locales are never Boolean constructively, except for the trivial locale. So, what is an almost discrete locale constructively? Our claim is that Sambin's overlap algebras have good enough features to deserve to be called that. Namely, they include the class of discrete locales, they arise as smallest strongly dense sublocales (of overt locales), and hence they coincide with the Boolean locales if LEM holds.

22. Constructive Many-one Reduction from the Halting Problem to Semi-unification (Extended Version)

Andrej Dudenhefner.
Semi-unification is the combination of first-order unification and first-order matching. The undecidability of semi-unification has been proven by Kfoury, Tiuryn, and Urzyczyn in the 1990s by Turing reduction from Turing machine immortality (existence of a diverging configuration). The particular Turing reduction is intricate, uses non-computational principles, and involves various intermediate models of computation. The present work gives a constructive many-one reduction from the Turing machine halting problem to semi-unification. This establishes RE-completeness of semi-unification under many-one reductions. Computability of the reduction function, constructivity of the argument, and correctness of the argument is witnessed by an axiom-free mechanization in the Coq proof assistant. Arguably, this serves as comprehensive, precise, and surveyable evidence for the result at hand. The mechanization is incorporated into the existing, well-maintained Coq library of undecidability proofs. Notably, a variant of Hooper's argument for the undecidability of Turing machine immortality is part of the mechanization.

23. Exponentials as Substitutions and the Cost of Cut Elimination in Linear Logic

Beniamino Accattoli.
This paper introduces the exponential substitution calculus (ESC), a new presentation of cut elimination for IMELL, based on proof terms and building on the idea that exponentials can be seen as explicit substitutions. The idea in itself is not new, but here it is pushed to a new level, inspired by Accattoli and Kesner's linear substitution calculus (LSC). One of the key properties of the LSC is that it naturally models the sub-term property of abstract machines, that is the key ingredient for the study of reasonable time cost models for the $\lambda$-calculus. The new ESC is then used to design a cut elimination strategy with the sub-term property, providing the first polynomial cost model for cut elimination with unconstrained exponentials. For the ESC, we also prove untyped confluence and typed strong normalization, showing that it is an alternative to proof nets for an advanced study of cut elimination.

24. Model Checking Temporal Properties of Recursive Probabilistic Programs

Tobias Winkler ; Christina Gehnen ; Joost-Pieter Katoen.
Probabilistic pushdown automata (pPDA) are a standard operational model for programming languages involving discrete random choices and recursive procedures. Temporal properties are useful for specifying the chronological order of events during program execution. Existing approaches for model checking pPDA against temporal properties have focused mostly on $\omega$-regular and LTL properties. In this paper, we give decidability and complexity results for the model checking problem of pPDA against $\omega$-visibly pushdown languages that can be described by specification logics such as CaRet. These logical formulae allow specifying properties that explicitly take the structured computations arising from procedural programs into account. For example, CaRet is able to match procedure calls with their corresponding future returns, and thus allows to express fundamental program properties such as total and partial correctness.

25. A System of Interaction and Structure III: The Complexity of BV and Pomset Logic

Lê Thành Dũng Nguyên ; Lutz Straßburger.
Pomset logic and BV are both logics that extend multiplicative linear logic (with Mix) with a third connective that is self-dual and non-commutative. Whereas pomset logic originates from the study of coherence spaces and proof nets, BV originates from the study of series-parallel orders, cographs, and proof systems. Both logics enjoy a cut-admissibility result, but for neither logic can this be done in the sequent calculus. Provability in pomset logic can be checked via a proof net correctness criterion and in BV via a deep inference proof system. It has long been conjectured that these two logics are the same. In this paper we show that this conjecture is false. We also investigate the complexity of the two logics, exhibiting a huge gap between the two. Whereas provability in BV is NP-complete, provability in pomset logic is $\Sigma_2^p$-complete. We also make some observations with respect to possible sequent systems for the two logics.

26. Dynamic Cantor Derivative Logic

David Fernández-Duque ; Yoàv Montacute.
Topological semantics for modal logic based on the Cantor derivative operator gives rise to derivative logics, also referred to as $d$-logics. Unlike logics based on the topological closure operator, $d$-logics have not previously been studied in the framework of dynamical systems, which are pairs $(X,f)$ consisting of a topological space $X$ equipped with a continuous function $f\colon X\to X$. We introduce the logics $\bf{wK4C}$, $\bf{K4C}$ and $\bf{GLC}$ and show that they all have the finite Kripke model property and are sound and complete with respect to the $d$-semantics in this dynamical setting. In particular, we prove that $\bf{wK4C}$ is the $d$-logic of all dynamic topological systems, $\bf{K4C}$ is the $d$-logic of all $T_D$ dynamic topological systems, and $\bf{GLC}$ is the $d$-logic of all dynamic topological systems based on a scattered space. We also prove a general result for the case where $f$ is a homeomorphism, which in particular yields soundness and completeness for the corresponding systems $\bf{wK4H}$, $\bf{K4H}$ and $\bf{GLH}$. The main contribution of this work is the foundation of a general proof method for finite model property and completeness of dynamic topological $d$-logics. Furthermore, our result for $\bf{GLC}$ constitutes the first step towards a proof of completeness for the trimodal topo-temporal language with respect to a finite axiomatisation -- something known to be impossible over the class of all spaces.

27. A Nivat Theorem for Weighted Alternating Automata over Commutative Semirings

Gustav Grabolle.
This paper connects the classes of weighted alternating finite automata (WAFA), weighted finite tree automata (WFTA), and polynomial automata (PA). First, we investigate the use of trees in the run semantics for weighted alternating automata and prove that the behavior of a weighted alternating automaton can be characterized as the composition of the behavior of a weighted finite tree automaton and a specific tree homomorphism, if weights are taken from a commutative semiring. Based on this, we give a Nivat-like characterization for weighted alternating automata. Moreover, we show that the class of series recognized by weighted alternating automata is closed under inverses of homomorphisms, but not under homomorphisms. Additionally, we give a logical characterization of weighted alternating automata, which uses weighted MSO logic for trees. Finally, we investigate the strong connection between weighted alternating automata and polynomial automata. We prove: A weighted language is recognized by a weighted alternating automaton iff its reversal in recognized by a polynomial automaton. Using the corresponding result for polynomial automata, we are able to prove that the ZERONESS problem for weighted alternating automata with weights taken from the rational numbers decidable.

28. Prioritise the Best Variation

Wen Kokke ; Ornela Dardha.
Binary session types guarantee communication safety and session fidelity, but alone they cannot rule out deadlocks arising from the interleaving of different sessions. In Classical Processes (CP)$-$a process calculus based on classical linear logic$-$deadlock freedom is guaranteed by combining channel creation and parallel composition under the same logical cut rule. Similarly, in Good Variation (GV)$-$a linear concurrent $\lambda$-calculus$-$deadlock freedom is guaranteed by combining channel creation and thread spawning under the same operation, called fork. In both CP and GV, deadlock freedom is achieved at the expense of expressivity, as the only processes allowed are tree-structured. Dardha and Gay define Priority CP (PCP), which allows cyclic-structured processes and restores deadlock freedom by using priorities, in line with Kobayashi and Padovani. Following PCP, we present Priority GV (PGV), a variant of GV which decouples channel creation from thread spawning. Consequently, we type cyclic-structured processes and restore deadlock freedom by using priorities. We show that our type system is sound by proving subject reduction and progress. We define an encoding from PCP to PGV and prove that the encoding preserves typing and is sound and complete with respect to the operational semantics.

29. Space-Fluid Adaptive Sampling by Self-Organisation

Roberto Casadei ; Stefano Mariani ; Danilo Pianini ; Mirko Viroli ; Franco Zambonelli.
A recurrent task in coordinated systems is managing (estimating, predicting, or controlling) signals that vary in space, such as distributed sensed data or computation outcomes. Especially in large-scale settings, the problem can be addressed through decentralised and situated computing systems: nodes can locally sense, process, and act upon signals, and coordinate with neighbours to implement collective strategies. Accordingly, in this work we devise distributed coordination strategies for the estimation of a spatial phenomenon through collaborative adaptive sampling. Our design is based on the idea of dynamically partitioning space into regions that compete and grow/shrink to provide accurate aggregate sampling. Such regions hence define a sort of virtualised space that is "fluid", since its structure adapts in response to pressure forces exerted by the underlying phenomenon. We provide an adaptive sampling algorithm in the field-based coordination framework, and prove it is self-stabilising and locally optimal. Finally, we verify by simulation that the proposed algorithm effectively carries out a spatially adaptive sampling while maintaining a tuneable trade-off between accuracy and efficiency.

30. Categorical composable cryptography: extended version

Anne Broadbent ; Martti Karvonen.
We formalize the simulation paradigm of cryptography in terms of category theory and show that protocols secure against abstract attacks form a symmetric monoidal category, thus giving an abstract model of composable security definitions in cryptography. Our model is able to incorporate computational security, set-up assumptions and various attack models such as colluding or independently acting subsets of adversaries in a modular, flexible fashion. We conclude by using string diagrams to rederive the security of the one-time pad, correctness of Diffie-Hellman key exchange and no-go results concerning the limits of bipartite and tripartite cryptography, ruling out e.g., composable commitments and broadcasting. On the way, we exhibit two categorical constructions of resource theories that might be of independent interest: one capturing resources shared among multiple parties and one capturing resource conversions that succeed asymptotically.

31. The syntactic side of autonomous categories enriched over generalised metric spaces

Fredrik Dahlqvist ; Renato Neves.
Programs with a continuous state space or that interact with physical processes often require notions of equivalence going beyond the standard binary setting in which equivalence either holds or does not hold. In this paper we explore the idea of equivalence taking values in a quantale V, which covers the cases of (in)equations and (ultra)metric equations among others. Our main result is the introduction of a V-equational deductive system for linear {\lambda}-calculus together with a proof that it is sound and complete. In fact we go further than this, by showing that linear {\lambda}-theories based on this V-equational system form a category that is equivalent to a category of autonomous categories enriched over 'generalised metric spaces'. If we instantiate this result to inequations, we get an equivalence with autonomous categories enriched over partial orders. In the case of (ultra)metric equations, we get an equivalence with autonomous categories enriched over (ultra)metric spaces. We additionally show that this syntax-semantics correspondence extends to the affine setting. We use our results to develop examples of inequational and metric equational systems for higher-order programming in the setting of real-time, probabilistic, and quantum computing.

32. Relational Models for the Lambek Calculus with Intersection and Constants

Stepan L. Kuznetsov.
We consider relational semantics (R-models) for the Lambek calculus extended with intersection and explicit constants for zero and unit. For its variant without constants and a restriction which disallows empty antecedents, Andreka and Mikulas (1994) prove strong completeness. We show that it fails without this restriction, but, on the other hand, prove weak completeness for non-standard interpretation of constants. For the standard interpretation, even weak completeness fails. The weak completeness result extends to an infinitary setting, for so-called iterative divisions (Kleene star under division). We also prove strong completeness results for product-free fragments.

33. Synchronizability of Communicating Finite State Machines is not Decidable

Alain Finkel ; Etienne Lozes.
A system of communicating finite state machines is synchronizable if its send trace semantics, i.e.the set of sequences of sendings it can perform, is the same when its communications are FIFO asynchronous and when they are just rendez-vous synchronizations. This property was claimed to be decidable in several conference and journal papers for either mailboxes or peer-to-peer communications, thanks to a form of small model property. In this paper, we show that this small model property does not hold neither for mailbox communications, nor for peer-to-peer communications, therefore the decidability of synchronizability becomes an open question. We close this question for peer-to-peer communications, and we show that synchronizability is actually undecidable. We show that synchronizability is decidable if the topology of communications is an oriented ring. We also show that, in this case, synchronizability implies the absence of unspecified receptions and orphan messages, and the channel-recognizability of the reachability set.

34. Finitary Simulation of Infinitary $\beta$-Reduction via Taylor Expansion, and Applications

Rémy Cerda ; Lionel Vaux Auclair.
Originating in Girard's Linear logic, Ehrhard and Regnier's Taylor expansion of $\lambda$-terms has been broadly used as a tool to approximate the terms of several variants of the $\lambda$-calculus. Many results arise from a Commutation theorem relating the normal form of the Taylor expansion of a term to its Böhm tree. This led us to consider extending this formalism to the infinitary $\lambda$-calculus, since the $\Lambda_{\infty}^{001}$ version of this calculus has Böhm trees as normal forms and seems to be the ideal framework to reformulate the Commutation theorem. We give a (co-)inductive presentation of $\Lambda_{\infty}^{001}$. We define a Taylor expansion on this calculus, and state that the infinitary $\beta$-reduction can be simulated through this Taylor expansion. The target language is the usual resource calculus, and in particular the resource reduction remains finite, confluent and terminating. Finally, we state the generalised Commutation theorem and use our results to provide simple proofs of some normalisation and confluence properties in the infinitary $\lambda$-calculus.

35. Existential Definability over the Subword Ordering

Pascal Baumann ; Moses Ganardi ; Ramanathan S. Thinniyam ; Georg Zetzsche.
We study first-order logic (FO) over the structure consisting of finite words over some alphabet $A$, together with the (non-contiguous) subword ordering. In terms of decidability of quantifier alternation fragments, this logic is well-understood: If every word is available as a constant, then even the $\Sigma_1$ (i.e., existential) fragment is undecidable, already for binary alphabets $A$. However, up to now, little is known about the expressiveness of the quantifier alternation fragments: For example, the undecidability proof for the existential fragment relies on Diophantine equations and only shows that recursively enumerable languages over a singleton alphabet (and some auxiliary predicates) are definable. We show that if $|A|\ge 3$, then a relation is definable in the existential fragment over $A$ with constants if and only if it is recursively enumerable. This implies characterizations for all fragments $\Sigma_i$: If $|A|\ge 3$, then a relation is definable in $\Sigma_i$ if and only if it belongs to the $i$-th level of the arithmetical hierarchy. In addition, our result yields an analogous complete description of the $\Sigma_i$-fragments for $i\ge 2$ of the pure logic, where the words of $A^*$ are not available as constants.

36. Decision Questions for Probabilistic Automata on Small Alphabets

Paul C. Bell ; Pavel Semukhin.
We study the emptiness and $\lambda$-reachability problems for unary and binary Probabilistic Finite Automata (PFA) and characterise the complexity of these problems in terms of the degree of ambiguity of the automaton and the size of its alphabet. Our main result is that emptiness and $\lambda$-reachability are solvable in EXPTIME for polynomially ambiguous unary PFA and if, in addition, the transition matrix is binary, we show they are in NP. In contrast to the Skolem-hardness of the $\lambda$-reachability and emptiness problems for exponentially ambiguous unary PFA, we show that these problems are NP-hard even for finitely ambiguous unary PFA. For binary polynomially ambiguous PFA with fixed and commuting transition matrices, we prove NP-hardness of the $\lambda$-reachability (dimension 9), nonstrict emptiness (dimension 37) and strict emptiness (dimension 40) problems.

37. Decidability of Two Truly Concurrent Equivalences for Finite Bounded Petri Nets

Arnaldo Cesco ; Roberto Gorrieri.
We prove that the well-known (strong) fully-concurrent bisimilarity and the novel i-causal-net bisimilarity, which is a sligtlhy coarser variant of causal-net bisimilarity, are decidable for finite bounded Petri nets. The proofs are based on a generalization of the ordered marking proof technique that Vogler used to demonstrate that (strong) fully-concurrent bisimilarity (or, equivalently, history-preserving bisimilarity) is decidable on finite safe nets.

38. Efficient Evaluation of Arbitrary Relational Calculus Queries

Martin Raszyk ; David Basin ; Srđan Krstić ; Dmitriy Traytel.
The relational calculus (RC) is a concise, declarative query language. However, existing RC query evaluation approaches are inefficient and often deviate from established algorithms based on finite tables used in database management systems. We devise a new translation of an arbitrary RC query into two safe-range queries, for which the finiteness of the query's evaluation result is guaranteed. Assuming an infinite domain, the two queries have the following meaning: The first is closed and characterizes the original query's relative safety, i.e., whether given a fixed database, the original query evaluates to a finite relation. The second safe-range query is equivalent to the original query, if the latter is relatively safe. We compose our translation with other, more standard ones to ultimately obtain two SQL queries. This allows us to use standard database management systems to evaluate arbitrary RC queries. We show that our translation improves the time complexity over existing approaches, which we also empirically confirm in both realistic and synthetic experiments.

39. Robustness against Read Committed for Transaction Templates with Functional Constraints

Brecht Vandevoort ; Bas Ketsman ; Christoph Koch ; Frank Neven.
The popular isolation level Multiversion Read Committed (RC) trades some of the strong guarantees of serializability for increased transaction throughput. Sometimes, transaction workloads can be safely executed under RC obtaining serializability at the lower cost of RC. Such workloads are said to be robust against RC. Previous work has yielded a tractable procedure for deciding robustness against RC for workloads generated by transaction programs modeled as transaction templates. An important insight of that work is that, by more accurately modeling transaction programs, we are able to recognize larger sets of workloads as robust. In this work, we increase the modeling power of transaction templates by extending them with functional constraints, which are useful for capturing data dependencies like foreign keys. We show that the incorporation of functional constraints can identify more workloads as robust that otherwise would not be. Even though we establish that the robustness problem becomes undecidable in its most general form, we show that various restrictions on functional constraints lead to decidable and even tractable fragments that can be used to model and test for robustness against RC for realistic scenarios.