Volume 7, Issue 1


1. Algebraic Notions of Termination

Jules, Desharnais ; Moeller, Bernhard ; Georg, Struth.
Five algebraic notions of termination are formalised, analysed and compared: wellfoundedness or Noetherity, Löb's formula, absence of infinite iteration, absence of divergence and normalisation. The study is based on modal semirings, which are additively idempotent semirings with forward and backward modal operators. To model infinite behaviours, idempotent semirings are extended to divergence semirings, divergence Kleene algebras and omega algebras. The resulting notions and techniques are used in calculational proofs of classical theorems of rewriting theory. These applications show that modal semirings are powerful tools for reasoning algebraically about the finite and infinite dynamics of programs and transition systems.

2. Semantics of Typed Lambda-Calculus with Constructors

Petit, Barbara.
We present a Curry-style second-order type system with union and intersection types for the lambda-calculus with constructors of Arbiser, Miquel and Rios, an extension of lambda-calculus with a pattern matching mechanism for variadic constructors. We then prove the strong normalisation and the absence of match failure for a restriction of this system, by adapting the standard reducibility method.

3. Efficiently Simulating Higher-Order Arithmetic by a First-Order Theory Modulo

Burel, Guillaume.
In deduction modulo, a theory is not represented by a set of axioms but by a congruence on propositions modulo which the inference rules of standard deductive systems---such as for instance natural deduction---are applied. Therefore, the reasoning that is intrinsic of the theory does not appear in the length of proofs. In general, the congruence is defined through a rewrite system over terms and propositions. We define a rigorous framework to study proof lengths in deduction modulo, where the congruence must be computed in polynomial time. We show that even very simple rewrite systems lead to arbitrary proof-length speed-ups in deduction modulo, compared to using axioms. As higher-order logic can be encoded as a first-order theory in deduction modulo, we also study how to reinterpret, thanks to deduction modulo, the speed-ups between higher-order and first-order arithmetics that were stated by Gödel. We define a first-order rewrite system with a congruence decidable in polynomial time such that proofs of higher-order arithmetic can be linearly translated into first-order arithmetic modulo that system. We also present the whole higher-order arithmetic as a first-order system without resorting to any axiom, where proofs have the same length as in the axiomatic presentation.

4. Generic Modal Cut Elimination Applied to Conditional Logics

Pattinson, Dirk ; Schröder, Lutz.
We develop a general criterion for cut elimination in sequent calculi for propositional modal logics, which rests on absorption of cut, contraction, weakening and inversion by the purely modal part of the rule system. Our criterion applies also to a wide variety of logics outside the realm of normal modal logic. We give extensive example instantiations of our framework to various conditional logics. For these, we obtain fully internalised calculi which are substantially simpler than those known in the literature, along with leaner proofs of cut elimination and complexity. In one case, conditional logic with modus ponens and conditional excluded middle, cut elimination and complexity were explicitly stated as open in the literature.

5. Terminating Tableaux for Graded Hybrid Logic with Global Modalities and Role Hierarchies

Kaminski, Mark ; Schneider, Sigurd ; Smolka, Gert.
We present a terminating tableau calculus for graded hybrid logic with global modalities, reflexivity, transitivity and role hierarchies. Termination of the system is achieved through pattern-based blocking. Previous approaches to related logics all rely on chain-based blocking. Besides being conceptually simple and suitable for efficient implementation, the pattern-based approach gives us a NExpTime complexity bound for the decision procedure.

6. A Focused Sequent Calculus Framework for Proof Search in Pure Type Systems

Lengrand, Stéphane Jean Eric ; Dyckhoff, Roy ; McKinna, James.
Basic proof-search tactics in logic and type theory can be seen as the root-first applications of rules in an appropriate sequent calculus, preferably without the redundancies generated by permutation of rules. This paper addresses the issues of defining such sequent calculi for Pure Type Systems (PTS, which were originally presented in natural deduction style) and then organizing their rules for effective proof-search. We introduce the idea of Pure Type Sequent Calculus with meta-variables (PTSCalpha), by enriching the syntax of a permutation-free sequent calculus for propositional logic due to Herbelin, which is strongly related to natural deduction and already well adapted to proof-search. The operational semantics is adapted from Herbelin's and is defined by a system of local rewrite rules as in cut-elimination, using explicit substitutions. We prove confluence for this system. Restricting our attention to PTSC, a type system for the ground terms of this system, we obtain the Subject Reduction property and show that each PTSC is logically equivalent to its corresponding PTS, and the former is strongly normalising iff the latter is. We show how to make the logical rules of PTSC into a syntax-directed system PS for proof-search, by incorporating the conversion rules as in syntax-directed presentations of the PTS rules for type-checking. Finally, we consider how to use the explicitly scoped meta-variables of PTSCalpha to represent partial proof-terms, and use them to […]

7. A calculus for costed computations

hennessy, matthew.
We develop a version of the pi-calculus, picost, where channels are interpreted as resources which have costs associated with them. Code runs under the financial responsibility of owners; they must pay to use resources, but may profit by providing them. We provide a proof methodology for processes described in picost based on bisimulations. The underlying behavioural theory is justified via a contextual characterisation. We also demonstrate its usefulness via examples.

8. From coinductive proofs to exact real arithmetic: theory and applications

Berger, Ulrich.
Based on a new coinductive characterization of continuous functions we extract certified programs for exact real number computation from constructive proofs. The extracted programs construct and combine exact real number algorithms with respect to the binary signed digit representation of real numbers. The data type corresponding to the coinductive definition of continuous functions consists of finitely branching non-wellfounded trees describing when the algorithm writes and reads digits. We discuss several examples including the extraction of programs for polynomials up to degree two and the definite integral of continuous maps.

9. Functional Interpretations of Intuitionistic Linear Logic

Ferreira, Gilda ; Oliva, Paulo.
We present three different functional interpretations of intuitionistic linear logic ILL and show how these correspond to well-known functional interpretations of intuitionistic logic IL via embeddings of IL into ILL. The main difference from previous work of the second author is that in intuitionistic linear logic (as opposed to classical linear logic) the interpretations of !A are simpler and simultaneous quantifiers are no longer needed for the characterisation of the interpretations. We then compare our approach in developing these three proof interpretations with the one of de Paiva around the Dialectica category model of linear logic.

10. Equality Saturation: A New Approach to Optimization

Tate, Ross ; Stepp, Michael ; Tatlock, Zachary ; Lerner, Sorin.
Optimizations in a traditional compiler are applied sequentially, with each optimization destructively modifying the program to produce a transformed program that is then passed to the next optimization. We present a new approach for structuring the optimization phase of a compiler. In our approach, optimizations take the form of equality analyses that add equality information to a common intermediate representation. The optimizer works by repeatedly applying these analyses to infer equivalences between program fragments, thus saturating the intermediate representation with equalities. Once saturated, the intermediate representation encodes multiple optimized versions of the input program. At this point, a profitability heuristic picks the final optimized program from the various programs represented in the saturated representation. Our proposed way of structuring optimizers has a variety of benefits over previous approaches: our approach obviates the need to worry about optimization ordering, enables the use of a global optimization heuristic that selects among fully optimized programs, and can be used to perform translation validation, even on compilers other than our own. We present our approach, formalize it, and describe our choice of intermediate representation. We also present experimental results showing that our approach is practical in terms of time and space overhead, is effective at discovering intricate optimization opportunities, and is effective at performing […]

11. Psi-calculi: a framework for mobile processes with nominal data and logic

Bengtson, Jesper ; Johansson, Magnus ; Parrow, Joachim ; Victor, Björn.
The framework of psi-calculi extends the pi-calculus with nominal datatypes for data structures and for logical assertions and conditions. These can be transmitted between processes and their names can be statically scoped as in the standard pi-calculus. Psi-calculi can capture the same phenomena as other proposed extensions of the pi-calculus such as the applied pi-calculus, the spi-calculus, the fusion calculus, the concurrent constraint pi-calculus, and calculi with polyadic communication channels or pattern matching. Psi-calculi can be even more general, for example by allowing structured channels, higher-order formalisms such as the lambda calculus for data structures, and predicate logic for assertions. We provide ample comparisons to related calculi and discuss a few significant applications. Our labelled operational semantics and definition of bisimulation is straightforward, without a structural congruence. We establish minimal requirements on the nominal data and logic in order to prove general algebraic properties of psi-calculi, all of which have been checked in the interactive theorem prover Isabelle. Expressiveness of psi-calculi significantly exceeds that of other formalisms, while the purity of the semantics is on par with the original pi-calculus.

12. Model Checking of Continuous-Time Markov Chains Against Timed Automata Specifications

Chen, Taolue ; Han, Tingting ; Katoen, Joost-Pieter ; Mereacre, Alexandru.
We study the verification of a finite continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) C against a linear real-time specification given as a deterministic timed automaton (DTA) A with finite or Muller acceptance conditions. The central question that we address is: what is the probability of the set of paths of C that are accepted by A, i.e., the likelihood that C satisfies A? It is shown that under finite acceptance criteria this equals the reachability probability in a finite piecewise deterministic Markov process (PDP), whereas for Muller acceptance criteria it coincides with the reachability probability of terminal strongly connected components in such a PDP. Qualitative verification is shown to amount to a graph analysis of the PDP. Reachability probabilities in our PDPs are then characterized as the least solution of a system of Volterra integral equations of the second type and are shown to be approximated by the solution of a system of partial differential equations. For single-clock DTA, this integral equation system can be transformed into a system of linear equations where the coefficients are solutions of ordinary differential equations. As the coefficients are in fact transient probabilities in CTMCs, this result implies that standard algorithms for CTMC analysis suffice to verify single-clock DTA specifications.

13. Relating coalgebraic notions of bisimulation

Staton, Sam.
The theory of coalgebras, for an endofunctor on a category, has been proposed as a general theory of transition systems. We investigate and relate four generalizations of bisimulation to this setting, providing conditions under which the four different generalizations coincide. We study transfinite sequences whose limits are the greatest bisimulations.

14. Being Van Kampen is a universal property

Sobocinski, Pawel ; Heindel, Tobias.
Colimits that satisfy the Van Kampen condition have interesting exactness properties. We show that the elementary presentation of the Van Kampen condition is actually a characterisation of a universal property in the associated bicategory of spans. The main theorem states that Van Kampen cocones are precisely those diagrams in a category that induce bicolimit diagrams in its associated bicategory of spans, provided that the category has pullbacks and enough colimits.

15. Semantics of Higher-Order Recursion Schemes

Adamek, Jiri ; Milius, Stefan ; Velebil, Jiri.
Higher-order recursion schemes are recursive equations defining new operations from given ones called "terminals". Every such recursion scheme is proved to have a least interpreted semantics in every Scott's model of \lambda-calculus in which the terminals are interpreted as continuous operations. For the uninterpreted semantics based on infinite \lambda-terms we follow the idea of Fiore, Plotkin and Turi and work in the category of sets in context, which are presheaves on the category of finite sets. Fiore et al showed how to capture the type of variable binding in \lambda-calculus by an endofunctor H\lambda and they explained simultaneous substitution of \lambda-terms by proving that the presheaf of \lambda-terms is an initial H\lambda-monoid. Here we work with the presheaf of rational infinite \lambda-terms and prove that this is an initial iterative H\lambda-monoid. We conclude that every guarded higher-order recursion scheme has a unique uninterpreted solution in this monoid.