2016

The halting problem is undecidable --- but can it be solved for "most" inputs? This natural question was considered in a number of papers, in different settings. We revisit their results and show that most of them can be easily proven in a natural framework of optimal machines (considered in algorithmic information theory) using the notion of Kolmogorov complexity. We also consider some related questions about this framework and about asymptotic properties of the halting problem. In particular, we show that the fraction of terminating programs cannot have a limit, and all limit points are Martin-Löf random reals. We then consider mass problems of finding an approximate solution of halting problem and probabilistic algorithms for them, proving both positive and negative results. We consider the fraction of terminating programs that require a long time for termination, and describe this fraction using the busy beaver function. We also consider approximate versions of separation problems, and revisit Schnorr's results about optimal numberings showing how they can be generalized.

The \emph{International Obfuscated C Code Contest} was a programming contest for the most creatively obfuscated yet succinct C code. By \emph{contrast}, an interest herein is in programs which are, \emph{in a sense}, \emph{easily} seen to be correct, but which can\emph{not} be proved correct in pre-assigned, computably axiomatized, powerful, true theories {\bf T}. A point made by our first theorem, then, is that, then, \emph{un}verifiable programs need \emph{not} be obfuscated! The first theorem and its proof is followed by a motivated, concrete example based on a remark of Hilary Putnam. The first theorem has some non-constructivity in its statement and proof, and the second theorem implies some of the non-constructivity is inherent. That result, then, brings up the question of whether there is an acceptable programming system (numbering) for which some non-constructivity of the first theorem disappears. The third theorem shows this is the case, but for a subtle reason explained in the text. This latter theorem has a number of corollaries, regarding its acceptable programming system, and providing some surprises and subtleties about proving its program properties (including universality, and the presence of the composition control structure). The next two theorems provide acceptable systems with contrasting surprises regarding proving universality in them. Finally the next and last theorem (the most difficult to prove in the paper) provides an acceptable system with […]

A data tree is an unranked ordered tree where each node carries a label from a finite alphabet and a datum from some infinite domain. We consider the two variable first order logic FO2(<,+1,~) over data trees. Here +1 refers to the child and the next sibling relations while < refers to the descendant and following sibling relations. Moreover, ~ is a binary predicate testing data equality. We exhibit an automata model, denoted DAD# that is more expressive than FO2(<,+1,~) but such that emptiness of DAD# and satisfiability of FO2(<,+1,~) are inter-reducible. This is proved via a model of counter tree automata, denoted EBVASS, that extends Branching Vector Addition Systems with States (BVASS) with extra features for merging counters. We show that, as decision problems, reachability for EBVASS, satisfiability of FO2(<,+1,~) and emptiness of DAD# are equivalent.

We give a characterization, with respect to a large class of models of untyped lambda-calculus, of those models that are fully abstract for head-normalization, i.e., whose equational theory is H* (observations for head normalization). An extensional K-model $D$ is fully abstract if and only if it is hyperimmune, {\em i.e.}, not well founded chains of elements of D cannot be captured by any recursive function. This article, together with its companion paper, form the long version of [Bre14]. It is a standalone paper that presents a purely semantical proof of the result as opposed to its companion paper that presents an independent and purely syntactical proof of the same result.

Je\v{r}ábek showed that cuts in classical propositional logic proofs in deep inference can be eliminated in quasipolynomial time. The proof is indirect and it relies on a result of Atserias, Galesi and Pudlák about monotone sequent calculus and a correspondence between that system and cut-free deep-inference proofs. In this paper we give a direct proof of Je\v{r}ábek's result: we give a quasipolynomial-time cut-elimination procedure for classical propositional logic in deep inference. The main new ingredient is the use of a computational trace of deep-inference proofs called atomic flows, which are both very simple (they only trace structural rules and forget logical rules) and strong enough to faithfully represent the cut-elimination procedure.

Valiant (1975) has developed an algorithm for recognition of context free languages. As of today, it remains the algorithm with the best asymptotic complexity for this purpose. In this paper, we present an algebraic specification, implementation, and proof of correctness of a generalisation of Valiant's algorithm. The generalisation can be used for recognition, parsing or generic calculation of the transitive closure of upper triangular matrices. The proof is certified by the Agda proof assistant. The certification is representative of state-of-the-art methods for specification and proofs in proof assistants based on type-theory. As such, this paper can be read as a tutorial for the Agda system.

This paper presents a Coq formalization of linear algebra over elementary divisor rings, that is, rings where every matrix is equivalent to a matrix in Smith normal form. The main results are the formalization that these rings support essential operations of linear algebra, the classification theorem of finitely presented modules over such rings and the uniqueness of the Smith normal form up to multiplication by units. We present formally verified algorithms computing this normal form on a variety of coefficient structures including Euclidean domains and constructive principal ideal domains. We also study different ways to extend Bézout domains in order to be able to compute the Smith normal form of matrices. The extensions we consider are: adequacy (i.e. the existence of a gdco operation), Krull dimension $\leq 1$ and well-founded strict divisibility.

We study the finite satisfiability problem for the two-variable fragment of first-order logic extended with counting quantifiers (C2) and interpreted over linearly ordered structures. We show that the problem is undecidable in the case of two linear orders (in the presence of two other binary symbols). In the case of one linear order it is NEXPTIME-complete, even in the presence of the successor relation. Surprisingly, the complexity of the problem explodes when we add one binary symbol more: C2 with one linear order and in the presence of other binary predicate symbols is equivalent, under elementary reductions, to the emptiness problem for multicounter automata.

The reachability analysis of weighted pushdown systems is a very powerful technique in verification and analysis of recursive programs. Each transition rule of a weighted pushdown system is associated with an element of a bounded semiring representing the weight of the rule. However, we have realized that the restriction of the boundedness is too strict and the formulation of weighted pushdown systems is not general enough for some applications. To generalize weighted pushdown systems, we first introduce the notion of stack signatures that summarize the effect of a computation of a pushdown system and formulate pushdown systems as automata over the monoid of stack signatures. We then generalize weighted pushdown systems by introducing semirings indexed by the monoid and weaken the boundedness to local boundedness.

Session types are used to describe and structure interactions between independent processes in distributed systems. Higher-order types are needed in order to properly structure delegation of responsibility between processes. In this paper we show that higher-order web-service contracts can be used to provide a fully-abstract model of recursive higher-order session types. The model is set-theoretic, in the sense that the meaning of a contract is given in terms of the set of contracts with which it complies. The proof of full-abstraction depends on a novel notion of the complement of a contract. This in turn gives rise to an alternative to the type duality commonly used in systems for type-checking session types. We believe that the notion of complement captures more faithfully the behavioural intuition underlying type duality.

Respectful functions were introduced by Sangiorgi as a compositional tool to formulate short and clear bisimulation proofs. Usually, the larger the respectful function, the easier the bisimulation proof. In particular the largest respectful function, defined as the pointwise union of all respectful functions, has been shown to be very useful. We here provide an explicit and constructive characterization of it.

In the lambda calculus a term is solvable iff it is operationally relevant. Solvable terms are a superset of the terms that convert to a final result called normal form. Unsolvable terms are operationally irrelevant and can be equated without loss of consistency. There is a definition of solvability for the lambda-value calculus, called v-solvability, but it is not synonymous with operational relevance, some lambda-value normal forms are unsolvable, and unsolvables cannot be consistently equated. We provide a definition of solvability for the lambda-value calculus that does capture operational relevance and such that a consistent proof-theory can be constructed where unsolvables are equated attending to the number of arguments they take (their "order" in the jargon). The intuition is that in lambda-value the different sequentialisations of a computation can be distinguished operationally. We prove a version of the Genericity Lemma stating that unsolvable terms are generic and can be replaced by arbitrary terms of equal or greater order.