Volume 12, Issue 3

2016


1. Reasoning about Data Repetitions with Counter Systems

Demri, Stephane ; Figueira, Diego ; Praveen, M.
We study linear-time temporal logics interpreted over data words with multiple attributes. We restrict the atomic formulas to equalities of attribute values in successive positions and to repetitions of attribute values in the future or past. We demonstrate correspondences between satisfiability problems for logics and reachability-like decision problems for counter systems. We show that allowing/disallowing atomic formulas expressing repetitions of values in the past corresponds to the reachability/coverability problem in Petri nets. This gives us 2EXPSPACE upper bounds for several satisfiability problems. We prove matching lower bounds by reduction from a reachability problem for a newly introduced class of counter systems. This new class is a succinct version of vector addition systems with states in which counters are accessed via pointers, a potentially useful feature in other contexts. We strengthen further the correspondences between data logics and counter systems by […]

2. Dualized Simple Type Theory

Eades III, Harley ; Stump, Aaron ; McCleeary, Ryan.
We propose a new bi-intuitionistic type theory called Dualized Type Theory (DTT). It is a simple type theory with perfect intuitionistic duality, and corresponds to a single-sided polarized sequent calculus. We prove DTT strongly normalizing, and prove type preservation. DTT is based on a new propositional bi-intuitionistic logic called Dualized Intuitionistic Logic (DIL) that builds on Pinto and Uustalu's logic L. DIL is a simplification of L by removing several admissible inference rules while maintaining consistency and completeness. Furthermore, DIL is defined using a dualized syntax by labeling formulas and logical connectives with polarities thus reducing the number of inference rules needed to define the logic. We give a direct proof of consistency, but prove completeness by reduction to L.

3. Block structure vs scope extrusion: between innocence and omniscience

Murawski, Andrzej S. ; Tzevelekos, Nikos.
We study the semantic meaning of block structure using game semantics. To that end, we introduce the notion of block-innocent strategies and characterise call-by-value computation with block-allocated storage through soundness, finite definability and universality results. This puts us in a good position to conduct a comparative study of purely functional computation, computation with block storage as well as that with dynamic memory allocation. For example, we can show that dynamic variable allocation can be replaced with block-allocated variables exactly when the term involved (open or closed) is of base type and that block-allocated storage can be replaced with purely functional computation when types of order two are involved. To illustrate the restrictive nature of block structure further, we prove a decidability result for a finitary fragment of call-by-value Idealized Algol for which it is known that allowing for dynamic memory allocation leads to undecidability.

4. How Much Lookahead is Needed to Win Infinite Games?

Klein, Felix ; Zimmermann, Martin.
Delay games are two-player games of infinite duration in which one player may delay her moves to obtain a lookahead on her opponent's moves. For $\omega$-regular winning conditions it is known that such games can be solved in doubly-exponential time and that doubly-exponential lookahead is sufficient. We improve upon both results by giving an exponential time algorithm and an exponential upper bound on the necessary lookahead. This is complemented by showing EXPTIME-hardness of the solution problem and tight exponential lower bounds on the lookahead. Both lower bounds already hold for safety conditions. Furthermore, solving delay games with reachability conditions is shown to be PSPACE-complete. This is a corrected version of the paper https://arxiv.org/abs/1412.3701v4 published originally on August 26, 2016.

5. Solving finite-domain linear constraints in presence of the $\texttt{alldifferent}$

Banković, Milan.
In this paper, we investigate the possibility of improvement of the widely-used filtering algorithm for the linear constraints in constraint satisfaction problems in the presence of the alldifferent constraints. In many cases, the fact that the variables in a linear constraint are also constrained by some alldifferent constraints may help us to calculate stronger bounds of the variables, leading to a stronger constraint propagation. We propose an improved filtering algorithm that targets such cases. We provide a detailed description of the proposed algorithm and prove its correctness. We evaluate the approach on five different problems that involve combinations of the linear and the alldifferent constraints. We also compare our algorithm to other relevant approaches. The experimental results show a great potential of the proposed improvement.

6. Synthesis of Strategies Using the Hoare Logic of Angelic and Demonic Nondeterminism

Mamouras, Konstantinos.
We study a propositional variant of Hoare logic that can be used for reasoning about programs that exhibit both angelic and demonic nondeterminism. We work in an uninterpreted setting, where the meaning of the atomic actions is specified axiomatically using hypotheses of a certain form. Our logical formalism is entirely compositional and it subsumes the non-compositional formalism of safety games on finite graphs. We present sound and complete Hoare-style calculi that are useful for establishing partial-correctness assertions, as well as for synthesizing implementations. The computational complexity of the Hoare theory of dual nondeterminism is investigated using operational models, and it is shown that the theory is complete for exponential time.

7. The Guarded Lambda-Calculus: Programming and Reasoning with Guarded Recursion for Coinductive Types

Clouston, Ranald ; Bizjak, Aleš ; Grathwohl, Hans Bugge ; Birkedal, Lars.
We present the guarded lambda-calculus, an extension of the simply typed lambda-calculus with guarded recursive and coinductive types. The use of guarded recursive types ensures the productivity of well-typed programs. Guarded recursive types may be transformed into coinductive types by a type-former inspired by modal logic and Atkey-McBride clock quantification, allowing the typing of acausal functions. We give a call-by-name operational semantics for the calculus, and define adequate denotational semantics in the topos of trees. The adequacy proof entails that the evaluation of a program always terminates. We introduce a program logic with L\"ob induction for reasoning about the contextual equivalence of programs. We demonstrate the expressiveness of the calculus by showing the definability of solutions to Rutten's behavioural differential equations.

8. Build your own clarithmetic I: Setup and completeness

Japaridze, Giorgi.
Clarithmetics are number theories based on computability logic (see http://www.csc.villanova.edu/~japaridz/CL/ ). Formulas of these theories represent interactive computational problems, and their "truth" is understood as existence of an algorithmic solution. Various complexity constraints on such solutions induce various versions of clarithmetic. The present paper introduces a parameterized/schematic version CLA11(P1,P2,P3,P4). By tuning the three parameters P1,P2,P3 in an essentially mechanical manner, one automatically obtains sound and complete theories with respect to a wide range of target tricomplexity classes, i.e. combinations of time (set by P3), space (set by P2) and so called amplitude (set by P1) complexities. Sound in the sense that every theorem T of the system represents an interactive number-theoretic computational problem with a solution from the given tricomplexity class and, furthermore, such a solution can be automatically extracted from a proof of T. And […]

9. Idempotents in intensional type theory

Shulman, Michael.
We study idempotents in intensional Martin-L\"of type theory, and in particular the question of when and whether they split. We show that in the presence of propositional truncation and Voevodsky's univalence axiom, there exist idempotents that do not split; thus in plain MLTT not all idempotents can be proven to split. On the other hand, assuming only function extensionality, an idempotent can be split if and only if its witness of idempotency satisfies one extra coherence condition. Both proofs are inspired by parallel results of Lurie in higher category theory, showing that ideas from higher category theory and homotopy theory can have applications even in ordinary MLTT. Finally, we show that although the witness of idempotency can be recovered from a splitting, the one extra coherence condition cannot in general; and we construct "the type of fully coherent idempotents", by splitting an idempotent on the type of partially coherent ones. Our results have been […]

10. Z-stability in Constructive Analysis

Bridges, Douglas ; Dent, James ; McKubre-Jordens, Maarten.
We introduce Z-stability, a notion capturing the intuition that if a function f maps a metric space into a normed space and if the norm of f(x) is small, then x is close to a zero of f. Working in Bishop's constructive setting, we first study pointwise versions of Z-stability and the related notion of good behaviour for functions. We then present a recursive counterexample to the classical argument for passing from pointwise Z-stability to a uniform version on compact metric spaces. In order to effect this passage constructively, we bring into play the positivity principle, equivalent to Brouwer's fan theorem for detachable bars, and the limited anti-Specker property, an intuitionistic counterpart to sequential compactness. The final section deals with connections between the limited anti-Specker property, positivity properties, and (potentially) Brouwer's fan theorem for detachable bars.

11. Data optimizations for constraint automata

Jongmans, Sung-Shik T. Q. ; Arbab, Farhad.
Constraint automata (CA) constitute a coordination model based on finite automata on infinite words. Originally introduced for modeling of coordinators, an interesting new application of CAs is implementing coordinators (i.e., compiling CAs into executable code). Such an approach guarantees correctness-by-construction and can even yield code that outperforms hand-crafted code. The extent to which these two potential advantages materialize depends on the smartness of CA-compilers and the existence of proofs of their correctness. Every transition in a CA is labeled by a "data constraint" that specifies an atomic data-flow between coordinated processes as a first-order formula. At run-time, compiler-generated code must handle data constraints as efficiently as possible. In this paper, we present, and prove the correctness of two optimization techniques for CA-compilers related to handling of data constraints: a reduction to eliminate redundant variables and a translation from […]

12. Build your own clarithmetic II: Soundness

Japaridze, Giorgi.
Clarithmetics are number theories based on computability logic (see http://www.csc.villanova.edu/~japaridz/CL/ ). Formulas of these theories represent interactive computational problems, and their "truth" is understood as existence of an algorithmic solution. Various complexity constraints on such solutions induce various versions of clarithmetic. The present paper introduces a parameterized/schematic version CLA11(P1,P2,P3,P4). By tuning the three parameters P1,P2,P3 in an essentially mechanical manner, one automatically obtains sound and complete theories with respect to a wide range of target tricomplexity classes, i.e. combinations of time (set by P3), space (set by P2) and so called amplitude (set by P1) complexities. Sound in the sense that every theorem T of the system represents an interactive number-theoretic computational problem with a solution from the given tricomplexity class and, furthermore, such a solution can be automatically extracted from a proof of T. And […]

13. On Natural Deduction for Herbrand Constructive Logics I: Curry-Howard Correspondence for Dummett's Logic LC

Aschieri, Federico.
Dummett's logic LC is intuitionistic logic extended with Dummett's axiom: for every two statements the first implies the second or the second implies the first. We present a natural deduction and a Curry-Howard correspondence for first-order and second-order Dummett's logic. We add to the lambda calculus an operator which represents, from the viewpoint of programming, a mechanism for representing parallel computations and communication between them, and from the viewpoint of logic, Dummett's axiom. We prove that our typed calculus is normalizing and show that proof terms for existentially quantified formulas reduce to a list of individual terms forming an Herbrand disjunction.