Selected papers of the 28th Conference on Computer Science Logic (CSL) 2020

Editors: Anca Muscholl, Maribel Fernandez

This special issue contains six papers based on extended abstracts that were presented at the 28th edition of Computer Science Logic (CSL), the annual conference of the European Association for Computer Science Logic (EACSL). CSL 2020 was held in Barcelona, Spain, 13-16 January 2020.

CSL is an interdisciplinary conference, spanning across both basic and application-oriented research in mathematical logic and computer science. It is a forum for the presentation of research on all aspects of logic and applications, including automated deduction and interactive theorem proving, constructive mathematics and type theory, equational logic and term rewriting, automata and games, game semantics, modal and temporal logic, logical aspects of computational complexity, finite model theory, computational proof theory, logic programming and constraints, lambda calculus and combinatory logic, domain theory, categorical logic and topological semantics, database theory, specification, extraction and transformation of programs, logical aspects of quantum computing, logical foundations of programming paradigms, verification and program analysis, linear logic, higher-order logic, non-monotonic reasoning.

The papers included in this special issue were selected from the extended abstracts that appeared in the conference proceedings, which in turn were selected for presentation at CSL 2020 through a competitve peer-review process: the members of the programme committee accepted 32 papers out of 82 submissions. Compared with the extended abstracts that appeared in the conference proceedings, the papers in this issue have been extended by full proofs and additional results. Their topics reflect the diversity of the topics presented at CSL, including coalgebras, dynamic complexity and logic, logic with team semantics, proof theory, separation logic, and type theory. The six papers underwent a further rigorous reviewing process, following the LMCS standard, completely independent of the selection process of CSL 2020.

Maribel Fernández and Anca Moscholl Guest Editors of the CSL 2020 Special Issue

1. On the Union Closed Fragment of Existential Second-Order Logic and Logics with Team Semantics

Matthias Hoelzel ; Richard Wilke.
We present syntactic characterisations for the union closed fragments of existential second-order logic and of logics with team semantics. Since union closure is a semantical and undecidable property, the normal form we introduce enables the handling and provides a better understanding of this fragment. We also introduce inclusion-exclusion games that turn out to be precisely the corresponding model-checking games. These games are not only interesting in their own right, but they also are a key factor towards building a bridge between the semantic and syntactic fragments. On the level of logics with team semantics we additionally present restrictions of inclusion-exclusion logic to capture the union closed fragment. Moreover, we define a team based atom that when adding it to first-order logic also precisely captures the union closed fragment of existential second-order logic which answers an open question by Galliani and Hella.

2. A Complete Axiomatisation for Quantifier-Free Separation Logic

Stéphane Demri ; Étienne Lozes ; Alessio Mansutti.
We present the first complete axiomatisation for quantifier-free separation logic. The logic is equipped with the standard concrete heaplet semantics and the proof system has no external feature such as nominals/labels. It is not possible to rely completely on proof systems for Boolean BI as the concrete semantics needs to be taken into account. Therefore, we present the first internal Hilbert-style axiomatisation for quantifier-free separation logic. The calculus is divided in three parts: the axiomatisation of core formulae where Boolean combinations of core formulae capture the expressivity of the whole logic, axioms and inference rules to simulate a bottom-up elimination of separating connectives, and finally structural axioms and inference rules from propositional calculus and Boolean BI with the magic wand.

3. Internal Parametricity for Cubical Type Theory

Evan Cavallo ; Robert Harper.
We define a computational type theory combining the contentful equality structure of cartesian cubical type theory with internal parametricity primitives. The combined theory supports both univalence and its relational equivalent, which we call relativity. We demonstrate the use of the theory by analyzing polymorphic functions between higher inductive types, observe how cubical equality regularizes parametric type theory, and examine the similarities and discrepancies between cubical and parametric type theory, which are closely related. We also abstract a formal interface to the computational interpretation and show that this also has a presheaf model.

4. Dynamic Complexity of Parity Exists Queries

Nils Vortmeier ; Thomas Zeume.
Given a graph whose nodes may be coloured red, the parity of the number of red nodes can easily be maintained with first-order update rules in the dynamic complexity framework DynFO of Patnaik and Immerman. Can this be generalised to other or even all queries that are definable in first-order logic extended by parity quantifiers? We consider the query that asks whether the number of nodes that have an edge to a red node is odd. Already this simple query of quantifier structure parity-exists is a major roadblock for dynamically capturing extensions of first-order logic. We show that this query cannot be maintained with quantifier-free first-order update rules, and that variants induce a hierarchy for such update rules with respect to the arity of the maintained auxiliary relations. Towards maintaining the query with full first-order update rules, it is shown that degree-restricted variants can be maintained.

5. Expressive Logics for Coinductive Predicates

Clemens Kupke ; Jurriaan Rot.
The classical Hennessy-Milner theorem says that two states of an image-finite transition system are bisimilar if and only if they satisfy the same formulas in a certain modal logic. In this paper we study this type of result in a general context, moving from transition systems to coalgebras and from bisimilarity to coinductive predicates. We formulate when a logic fully characterises a coinductive predicate on coalgebras, by providing suitable notions of adequacy and expressivity, and give sufficient conditions on the semantics. The approach is illustrated with logics characterising similarity, divergence and a behavioural metric on automata.

6. Gluing resource proof-structures: inhabitation and inverting the Taylor expansion

Giulio Guerrieri ; Luc Pellissier ; Lorenzo Tortora de Falco.
A Multiplicative-Exponential Linear Logic (MELL) proof-structure can be expanded into a set of resource proof-structures: its Taylor expansion. We introduce a new criterion characterizing (and deciding in the finite case) those sets of resource proof-structures that are part of the Taylor expansion of some MELL proof-structure, through a rewriting system acting both on resource and MELL proof-structures. We also prove semi-decidability of the type inhabitation problem for cut-free MELL proof-structures.