Volume 17, Issue 3

2021

1. Affine Extensions of Integer Vector Addition Systems with States

Michael Blondin ; Christoph Haase ; Filip Mazowiecki ; Mikhail Raskin.
We study the reachability problem for affine $\mathbb{Z}$-VASS, which are integer vector addition systems with states in which transitions perform affine transformations on the counters. This problem is easily seen to be undecidable in general, and we therefore restrict ourselves to affine $\mathbb{Z}$-VASS with the finite-monoid property (afmp-$\mathbb{Z}$-VASS). The latter have the property that the monoid generated by the matrices appearing in their affine transformations is finite. The class of afmp-$\mathbb{Z}$-VASS encompasses classical operations of counter machines such as resets, permutations, transfers and copies. We show that reachability in an afmp-$\mathbb{Z}$-VASS reduces to reachability in a $\mathbb{Z}$-VASS whose control-states grow linearly in the size of the matrix monoid. Our construction shows that reachability relations of afmp-$\mathbb{Z}$-VASS are semilinear, and in particular enables us to show that reachability in $\mathbb{Z}$-VASS with transfers and $\mathbb{Z}$-VASS with copies is PSPACE-complete. We then focus on the reachability problem for affine $\mathbb{Z}$-VASS with monogenic monoids: (possibly infinite) matrix monoids generated by a single matrix. We show that, in a particular case, the reachability problem is decidable for this class, disproving a conjecture about affine $\mathbb{Z}$-VASS with infinite matrix monoids we raised in a preliminary version of this paper. We complement this result by presenting an affine $\mathbb{Z}$-VASS with […]

2. A Characterisation of Open Bisimilarity using an Intuitionistic Modal Logic

Ki Yung Ahn ; Ross Horne ; Alwen Tiu.
Open bisimilarity is defined for open process terms in which free variables may appear. The insight is, in order to characterise open bisimilarity, we move to the setting of intuitionistic modal logics. The intuitionistic modal logic introduced, called $\mathcal{OM}$, is such that modalities are closed under substitutions, which induces a property known as intuitionistic hereditary. Intuitionistic hereditary reflects in logic the lazy instantiation of free variables performed when checking open bisimilarity. The soundness proof for open bisimilarity with respect to our intuitionistic modal logic is mechanised in Abella. The constructive content of the completeness proof provides an algorithm for generating distinguishing formulae, which we have implemented. We draw attention to the fact that there is a spectrum of bisimilarity congruences that can be characterised by intuitionistic modal logics.

3. The Complexity of Reachability in Affine Vector Addition Systems with States

Michael Blondin ; Mikhail Raskin.
Vector addition systems with states (VASS) are widely used for the formal verification of concurrent systems. Given their tremendous computational complexity, practical approaches have relied on techniques such as reachability relaxations, e.g., allowing for negative intermediate counter values. It is natural to question their feasibility for VASS enriched with primitives that typically translate into undecidability. Spurred by this concern, we pinpoint the complexity of integer relaxations with respect to arbitrary classes of affine operations. More specifically, we provide a trichotomy on the complexity of integer reachability in VASS extended with affine operations (affine VASS). Namely, we show that it is NP-complete for VASS with resets, PSPACE-complete for VASS with (pseudo-)transfers and VASS with (pseudo-)copies, and undecidable for any other class. We further present a dichotomy for standard reachability in affine VASS: it is decidable for VASS with permutations, and undecidable for any other class. This yields a complete and unified complexity landscape of reachability in affine VASS. We also consider the reachability problem parameterized by a fixed affine VASS, rather than a class, and we show that the complexity landscape is arbitrary in this setting.

4. Presburger Arithmetic with algebraic scalar multiplications

Philipp Hieronymi ; Danny Nguyen ; Igor Pak.
We consider Presburger arithmetic (PA) extended by scalar multiplication by an algebraic irrational number $\alpha$, and call this extension $\alpha$-Presburger arithmetic ($\alpha$-PA). We show that the complexity of deciding sentences in $\alpha$-PA is substantially harder than in PA. Indeed, when $\alpha$ is quadratic and $r\geq 4$, deciding $\alpha$-PA sentences with $r$ alternating quantifier blocks and at most $c\ r$ variables and inequalities requires space at least $K 2^{\cdot^{\cdot^{\cdot^{2^{C\ell(S)}}}}}$ (tower of height $r-3$), where the constants $c, K, C>0$ only depend on $\alpha$, and $\ell(S)$ is the length of the given $\alpha$-PA sentence $S$. Furthermore deciding $\exists^{6}\forall^{4}\exists^{11}$ $\alpha$-PA sentences with at most $k$ inequalities is PSPACE-hard, where $k$ is another constant depending only on~$\alpha$. When $\alpha$ is non-quadratic, already four alternating quantifier blocks suffice for undecidability of $\alpha$-PA sentences.

5. Axiomatizing Hybrid XPath with Data

Carlos Areces ; Raul Fervari.
In this paper we introduce sound and strongly complete axiomatizations for XPath with data constraints extended with hybrid operators. First, we present HXPath=, a multi-modal version of XPath with data, extended with nominals and the hybrid operator @. Then, we introduce an axiomatic system for HXPath=, and we prove it is strongly complete with respect to the class of abstract data models, i.e., data models in which data values are abstracted as equivalence relations. We prove a general completeness result similar to the one presented in, e.g., [BtC06], that ensures that certain extensions of the axiomatic system we introduce are also complete. The axiomatic systems that can be obtained in this way cover a large family of hybrid XPath languages over different classes of frames, for which we present concrete examples. In addition, we investigate axiomatizations over the class of tree models, structures widely used in practice. We show that a strongly complete, finitary, first-order axiomatization of hybrid XPath over trees does not exist, and we propose two alternatives to deal with this issue. We finally introduce filtrations to investigate the status of decidability of the satisfiability problem for these languages.

6. Foundations of Online Structure Theory II: The Operator Approach

Rod Downey ; Alexander Melnikov ; Keng Meng Ng.
We introduce a framework for online structure theory. Our approach generalises notions arising independently in several areas of computability theory and complexity theory. We suggest a unifying approach using operators where we allow the input to be a countable object of an arbitrary complexity. We give a new framework which (i) ties online algorithms with computable analysis, (ii) shows how to use modifications of notions from computable analysis, such as Weihrauch reducibility, to analyse finite but uniform combinatorics, (iii) show how to finitize reverse mathematics to suggest a fine structure of finite analogs of infinite combinatorial problems, and (iv) see how similar ideas can be amalgamated from areas such as EX-learning, computable analysis, distributed computing and the like. One of the key ideas is that online algorithms can be viewed as a sub-area of computable analysis. Conversely, we also get an enrichment of computable analysis from classical online algorithms.

7. Pumping lemmas for weighted automata

Agnishom Chattopadhyay ; Filip Mazowiecki ; Anca Muscholl ; Cristian Riveros.
We present pumping lemmas for five classes of functions definable by fragments of weighted automata over the min-plus semiring, the max-plus semiring and the semiring of natural numbers. As a corollary we show that the hierarchy of functions definable by unambiguous, finitely-ambiguous, polynomially-ambiguous weighted automata, and the full class of weighted automata is strict for the min-plus and max-plus semirings.

8. A Detailed Account of The Inconsistent Labelling Problem of Stutter-Preserving Partial-Order Reduction

Thomas Neele ; Antti Valmari ; Tim A. C. Willemse.
One of the most popular state-space reduction techniques for model checking is partial-order reduction (POR). Of the many different POR implementations, stubborn sets are a very versatile variant and have thus seen many different applications over the past 32 years. One of the early stubborn sets works shows how the basic conditions for reduction can be augmented to preserve stutter-trace equivalence, making stubborn sets suitable for model checking of linear-time properties. In this paper, we identify a flaw in the reasoning and show with a counter-example that stutter-trace equivalence is not necessarily preserved. We propose a stronger reduction condition and provide extensive new correctness proofs to ensure the issue is resolved. Furthermore, we analyse in which formalisms the problem may occur. The impact on practical implementations is limited, since they all compute a correct approximation of the theory.

9. ReLoC Reloaded: A Mechanized Relational Logic for Fine-Grained Concurrency and Logical Atomicity

Dan Frumin ; Robbert Krebbers ; Lars Birkedal.
We present a new version of ReLoC: a relational separation logic for proving refinements of programs with higher-order state, fine-grained concurrency, polymorphism and recursive types. The core of ReLoC is its refinement judgment $e \precsim e' : \tau$, which states that a program $e$ refines a program $e'$ at type $\tau$. ReLoC provides type-directed structural rules and symbolic execution rules in separation-logic style for manipulating the judgment, whereas in prior work on refinements for languages with higher-order state and concurrency, such proofs were carried out by unfolding the judgment into its definition in the model. ReLoC's abstract proof rules make it simpler to carry out refinement proofs, and enable us to generalize the notion of logically atomic specifications to the relational case, which we call logically atomic relational specifications. We build ReLoC on top of the Iris framework for separation logic in Coq, allowing us to leverage features of Iris to prove soundness of ReLoC, and to carry out refinement proofs in ReLoC. We implement tactics for interactive proofs in ReLoC, allowing us to mechanize several case studies in Coq, and thereby demonstrate the practicality of ReLoC. ReLoC Reloaded extends ReLoC (LICS'18) with various technical improvements, a new Coq mechanization, and support for Iris's prophecy variables. The latter allows us to carry out refinement proofs that involve reasoning about the program's future. We also expand ReLoC's […]

10. Distribution Bisimilarity via the Power of Convex Algebras

Filippo Bonchi ; Alexandra Silva ; Ana Sokolova.
Probabilistic automata (PA), also known as probabilistic nondeterministic labelled transition systems, combine probability and nondeterminism. They can be given different semantics, like strong bisimilarity, convex bisimilarity, or (more recently) distribution bisimilarity. The latter is based on the view of PA as transformers of probability distributions, also called belief states, and promotes distributions to first-class citizens. We give a coalgebraic account of distribution bisimilarity, and explain the genesis of the belief-state transformer from a PA. To do so, we make explicit the convex algebraic structure present in PA and identify belief-state transformers as transition systems with state space that carries a convex algebra. As a consequence of our abstract approach, we can give a sound proof technique which we call bisimulation up-to convex hull.

11. Multimodal Dependent Type Theory

Daniel Gratzer ; G. A. Kavvos ; Andreas Nuyts ; Lars Birkedal.
We introduce MTT, a dependent type theory which supports multiple modalities. MTT is parametrized by a mode theory which specifies a collection of modes, modalities, and transformations between them. We show that different choices of mode theory allow us to use the same type theory to compute and reason in many modal situations, including guarded recursion, axiomatic cohesion, and parametric quantification. We reproduce examples from prior work in guarded recursion and axiomatic cohesion, thereby demonstrating that MTT constitutes a simple and usable syntax whose instantiations intuitively correspond to previous handcrafted modal type theories. In some cases, instantiating MTT to a particular situation unearths a previously unknown type theory that improves upon prior systems. Finally, we investigate the metatheory of MTT. We prove the consistency of MTT and establish canonicity through an extension of recent type-theoretic gluing techniques. These results hold irrespective of the choice of mode theory, and thus apply to a wide variety of modal situations.

12. On p/q-recognisable sets

Victor Marsault.
Let p/q be a rational number. Numeration in base p/q is defined by a function that evaluates each finite word over A_p={0,1,...,p-1} to some rational number. We let N_p/q denote the image of this evaluation function. In particular, N_p/q contains all nonnegative integers and the literature on base p/q usually focuses on the set of words that are evaluated to nonnegative integers; it is a rather chaotic language which is not context-free. On the contrary, we study here the subsets of (N_p/q)^d that are p/q-recognisable, i.e. realised by finite automata over (A_p)^d. First, we give a characterisation of these sets as those definable in a first-order logic, similar to the one given by the Büchi-Bruyère Theorem for integer bases numeration systems. Second, we show that the natural order relation and the modulo-q operator are not p/q-recognisable.

13. Representing Continuous Functions between Greatest Fixed Points of Indexed Containers

Pierre Hyvernat.
We describe a way to represent computable functions between coinductive types as particular transducers in type theory. This generalizes earlier work on functions between streams by P. Hancock to a much richer class of coinductive types. Those transducers can be defined in dependent type theory without any notion of equality but require inductive-recursive definitions. Most of the properties of these constructions only rely on a mild notion of equality (intensional equality) and can thus be formalized in the dependently typed language Agda.

14. On the Union Closed Fragment of Existential Second-Order Logic and Logics with Team Semantics

Matthias Hoelzel ; Richard Wilke.
We present syntactic characterisations for the union closed fragments of existential second-order logic and of logics with team semantics. Since union closure is a semantical and undecidable property, the normal form we introduce enables the handling and provides a better understanding of this fragment. We also introduce inclusion-exclusion games that turn out to be precisely the corresponding model-checking games. These games are not only interesting in their own right, but they also are a key factor towards building a bridge between the semantic and syntactic fragments. On the level of logics with team semantics we additionally present restrictions of inclusion-exclusion logic to capture the union closed fragment. Moreover, we define a team based atom that when adding it to first-order logic also precisely captures the union closed fragment of existential second-order logic which answers an open question by Galliani and Hella.

15. Relating Apartness and Bisimulation

Herman Geuvers ; Bart Jacobs.
A bisimulation for a coalgebra of a functor on the category of sets can be described via a coalgebra in the category of relations, of a lifted functor. A final coalgebra then gives rise to the coinduction principle, which states that two bisimilar elements are equal. For polynomial functors, this leads to well-known descriptions. In the present paper we look at the dual notion of "apartness". Intuitively, two elements are apart if there is a positive way to distinguish them. Phrased differently: two elements are apart if and only if they are not bisimilar. Since apartness is an inductive notion, described by a least fixed point, we can give a proof system, to derive that two elements are apart. This proof system has derivation rules and two elements are apart if and only if there is a finite derivation (using the rules) of this fact. We study apartness versus bisimulation in two separate ways. First, for weak forms of bisimulation on labelled transition systems, where silent (tau) steps are included, we define an apartness notion that corresponds to weak bisimulation and another apartness that corresponds to branching bisimulation. The rules for apartness can be used to show that two states of a labelled transition system are not branching bismilar. To support the apartness view on labelled transition systems, we cast a number of well-known properties of branching bisimulation in terms of branching apartness and prove them. Next, we also study the more general […]

16. Decision problems for linear recurrences involving arbitrary real numbers

Eike Neumann.
We study the decidability of the Skolem Problem, the Positivity Problem, and the Ultimate Positivity Problem for linear recurrences with real number initial values and real number coefficients in the bit-model of real computation. We show that for each problem there exists a correct partial algorithm which halts for all problem instances for which the answer is locally constant, thus establishing that all three problems are as close to decidable as one can expect them to be in this setting. We further show that the algorithms for the Positivity Problem and the Ultimate Positivity Problem halt on almost every instance with respect to the usual Lebesgue measure on Euclidean space. In comparison, the analogous problems for exact rational or real algebraic coefficients are known to be decidable only for linear recurrences of fairly low order.

17. A Complete Axiomatisation for Quantifier-Free Separation Logic

Stéphane Demri ; Étienne Lozes ; Alessio Mansutti.
We present the first complete axiomatisation for quantifier-free separation logic. The logic is equipped with the standard concrete heaplet semantics and the proof system has no external feature such as nominals/labels. It is not possible to rely completely on proof systems for Boolean BI as the concrete semantics needs to be taken into account. Therefore, we present the first internal Hilbert-style axiomatisation for quantifier-free separation logic. The calculus is divided in three parts: the axiomatisation of core formulae where Boolean combinations of core formulae capture the expressivity of the whole logic, axioms and inference rules to simulate a bottom-up elimination of separating connectives, and finally structural axioms and inference rules from propositional calculus and Boolean BI with the magic wand.

18. Ambiguity Hierarchy of Regular Infinite Tree Languages

Alexander Rabinovich ; Doron Tiferet.
An automaton is unambiguous if for every input it has at most one accepting computation. An automaton is k-ambiguous (for k > 0) if for every input it has at most k accepting computations. An automaton is boundedly ambiguous if it is k-ambiguous for some $k \in \mathbb{N}$. An automaton is finitely (respectively, countably) ambiguous if for every input it has at most finitely (respectively, countably) many accepting computations. The degree of ambiguity of a regular language is defined in a natural way. A language is k-ambiguous (respectively, boundedly, finitely, countably ambiguous) if it is accepted by a k-ambiguous (respectively, boundedly, finitely, countably ambiguous) automaton. Over finite words every regular language is accepted by a deterministic automaton. Over finite trees every regular language is accepted by an unambiguous automaton. Over $\omega$-words every regular language is accepted by an unambiguous Büchi automaton and by a deterministic parity automaton. Over infinite trees Carayol et al. showed that there are ambiguous languages. We show that over infinite trees there is a hierarchy of degrees of ambiguity: For every k > 1 there are k-ambiguous languages that are not k - 1 ambiguous; and there are finitely (respectively countably, uncountably) ambiguous languages that are not boundedly (respectively finitely, countably) ambiguous.

19. Equivalence checking for weak bi-Kleene algebra

Tobias Kappé ; Paul Brunet ; Bas Luttik ; Alexandra Silva ; Fabio Zanasi.
Pomset automata are an operational model of weak bi-Kleene algebra, which describes programs that can fork an execution into parallel threads, upon completion of which execution can join to resume as a single thread. We characterize a fragment of pomset automata that admits a decision procedure for language equivalence. Furthermore, we prove that this fragment corresponds precisely to series-rational expressions, i.e., rational expressions with an additional operator for bounded parallelism. As a consequence, we obtain a new proof that equivalence of series-rational expressions is decidable.

20. Successor-Invariant First-Order Logic on Classes of Bounded Degree

Julien Grange.
We study the expressive power of successor-invariant first-order logic, which is an extension of first-order logic where the usage of an additional successor relation on the structure is allowed, as long as the validity of formulas is independent of the choice of a particular successor on finite structures. We show that when the degree is bounded, successor-invariant first-order logic is no more expressive than first-order logic.

21. A program for the full axiom of choice

Jean-Louis Krivine.
The theory of classical realizability is a framework for the Curry-Howard correspondence which enables to associate a program with each proof in Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory. But, almost all the applications of mathematics in physics, probability, statistics, etc. use Analysis i.e. the axiom of dependent choice (DC) or even the (full) axiom of choice (AC). It is therefore important to find explicit programs for these axioms. Various solutions have been found for DC, for instance the lambda-term called "bar recursion" or the instruction "quote" of LISP. We present here the first program for AC.

22. The Shapley Value of Tuples in Query Answering

Ester Livshits ; Leopoldo Bertossi ; Benny Kimelfeld ; Moshe Sebag.
We investigate the application of the Shapley value to quantifying the contribution of a tuple to a query answer. The Shapley value is a widely known numerical measure in cooperative game theory and in many applications of game theory for assessing the contribution of a player to a coalition game. It has been established already in the 1950s, and is theoretically justified by being the very single wealth-distribution measure that satisfies some natural axioms. While this value has been investigated in several areas, it received little attention in data management. We study this measure in the context of conjunctive and aggregate queries by defining corresponding coalition games. We provide algorithmic and complexity-theoretic results on the computation of Shapley-based contributions to query answers; and for the hard cases we present approximation algorithms.

23. Cartesian Difference Categories

Mario Alvarez-Picallo ; Jean-Simon Pacaud Lemay.
Cartesian differential categories are categories equipped with a differential combinator which axiomatizes the directional derivative. Important models of Cartesian differential categories include classical differential calculus of smooth functions and categorical models of the differential $\lambda$-calculus. However, Cartesian differential categories cannot account for other interesting notions of differentiation of a more discrete nature such as the calculus of finite differences. On the other hand, change action models have been shown to capture these examples as well as more "exotic" examples of differentiation. But change action models are very general and do not share the nice properties of Cartesian differential categories. In this paper, we introduce Cartesian difference categories as a bridge between Cartesian differential categories and change action models. We show that every Cartesian differential category is a Cartesian difference category, and how certain well-behaved change action models are Cartesian difference categories. In particular, Cartesian difference categories model both the differential calculus of smooth functions and the calculus of finite differences. Furthermore, every Cartesian difference category comes equipped with a tangent bundle monad whose Kleisli category is again a Cartesian difference category.

24. Separation for dot-depth two

Thomas Place ; Marc Zeitoun.
The dot-depth hierarchy of Brzozowski and Cohen classifies the star-free languages of finite words. By a theorem of McNaughton and Papert, these are also the first-order definable languages. The dot-depth rose to prominence following the work of Thomas, who proved an exact correspondence with the quantifier alternation hierarchy of first-order logic: each level in the dot-depth hierarchy consists of all languages that can be defined with a prescribed number of quantifier blocks. One of the most famous open problems in automata theory is to settle whether the membership problem is decidable for each level: is it possible to decide whether an input regular language belongs to this level? Despite a significant research effort, membership by itself has only been solved for low levels. A recent breakthrough was achieved by replacing membership with a more general problem: separation. Given two input languages, one has to decide whether there exists a third language in the investigated level containing the first language and disjoint from the second. The motivation is that: (1) while more difficult, separation is more rewarding (2) it provides a more convenient framework (3) all recent membership algorithms are reductions to separation for lower levels. We present a separation algorithm for dot-depth two. While this is our most prominent application, our result is more general. We consider a family of hierarchies that includes the dot-depth: concatenation hierarchies. They […]

25. Modular coinduction up-to for higher-order languages via first-order transition systems

Jean-Marie Madiot ; Damien Pous ; Davide Sangiorgi.
The bisimulation proof method can be enhanced by employing `bisimulations up-to' techniques. A comprehensive theory of such enhancements has been developed for first-order (i.e., CCS-like) labelled transition systems (LTSs) and bisimilarity, based on abstract fixed-point theory and compatible functions. We transport this theory onto languages whose bisimilarity and LTS go beyond those of first-order models. The approach consists in exhibiting fully abstract translations of the more sophisticated LTSs and bisimilarities onto the first-order ones. This allows us to reuse directly the large corpus of up-to techniques that are available on first-order LTSs. The only ingredient that has to be manually supplied is the compatibility of basic up-to techniques that are specific to the new languages. We investigate the method on the pi-calculus, the lambda-calculus, and a (call-by-value) lambda-calculus with references.

26. Characterization and Derivation of Heard-Of Predicates for Asynchronous Message-Passing Models

Adam Shimi ; Aurélie Hurault ; Philippe Queinnec.
In distributed computing, multiple processes interact to solve a problem together. The main model of interaction is the message-passing model, where processes communicate by exchanging messages. Nevertheless, there are several models varying along important dimensions: degree of synchrony, kinds of faults, number of faults... This variety is compounded by the lack of a general formalism in which to abstract these models. One way to bring order is to constrain these models to communicate in rounds. This is the setting of the Heard-Of model, which captures many models through predicates on the messages sent in a round and received on time. Yet, it is not easy to define the predicate that captures a given operational model. The question is even harder for the asynchronous case, as unbounded message delay means the implementation of rounds must depend on details of the model. This paper shows that characterising asynchronous models by heard-of predicates is indeed meaningful. This characterization relies on delivered predicates, an intermediate abstraction between the informal operational model and the heard-of predicates. Our approach splits the problem into two steps: first extract the delivered model capturing the informal model, and then characterize the heard-of predicates that are generated by this delivered model. For the first part, we provide examples of delivered predicates, and an approach to derive more. It uses the intuition that complex models are a composition of […]

27. Modular Path Queries with Arithmetic

Jakub Michaliszyn ; Jan Otop ; Piotr Wieczorek.
We propose a new approach to querying graph databases. Our approach balances competing goals of expressive power, language clarity and computational complexity. A distinctive feature of our approach is the ability to express properties of minimal (e.g. shortest) and maximal (e.g. most valuable) paths satisfying given criteria. To express complex properties in a modular way, we introduce labelling-generating ontologies. The resulting formalism is computationally attractive - queries can be answered in non-deterministic logarithmic space in the size of the database.

28. W-types in setoids

Jacopo Emmenegger.
We present a construction of W-types in the setoid model of extensional Martin-Löf type theory using dependent W-types in the underlying intensional theory. More precisely, we prove that the internal category of setoids has initial algebras for polynomial endofunctors. In particular, we characterise the setoid of algebra morphisms from the initial algebra to a given algebra as a setoid on a dependent W-type. We conclude by discussing the case of free setoids. We work in a fully intensional theory and, in fact, we assume identity types only when discussing free setoids. By using dependent W-types we can also avoid elimination into a type universe. The results have been verified in Coq and a formalisation is available on the author's GitHub page.