Volume 17, Issue 4

2021

1. Causal Consistency for Reversible Multiparty Protocols

Claudio Antares Mezzina ; Jorge A. Pérez.
In programming models with a reversible semantics, computational steps can be undone. This paper addresses the integration of reversible semantics into process languages for communication-centric systems equipped with behavioral types. In prior work, we introduced a monitors-as-memories approach to seamlessly integrate reversible semantics into a process model in which concurrency is governed by session types (a class of behavioral types), covering binary (two-party) protocols with synchronous communication. The applicability and expressiveness of the binary setting, however, is limited. Here we extend our approach, and use it to define reversible semantics for an expressive process model that accounts for multiparty (n-party) protocols, asynchronous communication, decoupled rollbacks, and abstraction passing. As main result, we prove that our reversible semantics for multiparty protocols is causally-consistent. A key technical ingredient in our developments is an alternative reversible semantics with atomic rollbacks, which is conceptually simple and is shown to characterize decoupled rollbacks.

2. Foundations of regular coinduction

Francesco Dagnino.
Inference systems are a widespread framework used to define possibly recursive predicates by means of inference rules. They allow both inductive and coinductive interpretations that are fairly well-studied. In this paper, we consider a middle way interpretation, called regular, which combines advantages of both approaches: it allows non-well-founded reasoning while being finite. We show that the natural proof-theoretic definition of the regular interpretation, based on regular trees, coincides with a rational fixed point. Then, we provide an equivalent inductive characterization, which leads to an algorithm which looks for a regular derivation of a judgment. Relying on these results, we define proof techniques for regular reasoning: the regular coinduction principle, to prove completeness, and an inductive technique to prove soundness, based on the inductive characterization of the regular interpretation. Finally, we show the regular approach can be smoothly extended to inference systems with corules, a recently introduced, generalised framework, which allows one to refine the coinductive interpretation, proving that also this flexible regular interpretation admits an equivalent inductive characterisation.

3. Modal Functional (Dialectica) Interpretation

Dan Hernest ; Trifon Trifonov.
We adapt our light Dialectica interpretation to usual and light modal formulas (with universal quantification on boolean and natural variables) and prove it sound for a non-standard modal arithmetic based on Goedel's T and classical S4. The range of this light modal Dialectica is the usual (non-modal) classical Arithmetic in all finite types (with booleans); the propositional kernel of its domain is Boolean and not S4. The `heavy' modal Dialectica interpretation is a new technique, as it cannot be simulated within our previous light Dialectica. The synthesized functionals are at least as good as before, while the translation process is improved. Through our modal Dialectica, the existence of a realizer for the defining axiom of classical S5 reduces to the Drinking Principle (cf. Smullyan).

4. Quadratic Word Equations with Length Constraints, Counter Systems, and Presburger Arithmetic with Divisibility

Anthony W. Lin ; Rupak Majumdar.
Word equations are a crucial element in the theoretical foundation of constraint solving over strings. A word equation relates two words over string variables and constants. Its solution amounts to a function mapping variables to constant strings that equate the left and right hand sides of the equation. While the problem of solving word equations is decidable, the decidability of the problem of solving a word equation with a length constraint (i.e., a constraint relating the lengths of words in the word equation) has remained a long-standing open problem. We focus on the subclass of quadratic word equations, i.e., in which each variable occurs at most twice. We first show that the length abstractions of solutions to quadratic word equations are in general not Presburger-definable. We then describe a class of counter systems with Presburger transition relations which capture the length abstraction of a quadratic word equation with regular constraints. We provide an encoding of the effect of a simple loop of the counter systems in the existential theory of Presburger Arithmetic with divisibility (PAD). Since PAD is decidable (NP-hard and is in NEXP), we obtain a decision procedure for quadratic words equations with length constraints for which the associated counter system is flat (i.e., all nodes belong to at most one cycle). In particular, we show a decidability result (in fact, also an NP algorithm with a PAD oracle) for a recently proposed NP-complete fragment of word […]

5. Internal Parametricity for Cubical Type Theory

Evan Cavallo ; Robert Harper.
We define a computational type theory combining the contentful equality structure of cartesian cubical type theory with internal parametricity primitives. The combined theory supports both univalence and its relational equivalent, which we call relativity. We demonstrate the use of the theory by analyzing polymorphic functions between higher inductive types, observe how cubical equality regularizes parametric type theory, and examine the similarities and discrepancies between cubical and parametric type theory, which are closely related. We also abstract a formal interface to the computational interpretation and show that this also has a presheaf model.

6. Probabilistic Timed Automata with One Clock and Initialised Clock-Dependent Probabilities

Jeremy Sproston.
Clock-dependent probabilistic timed automata extend classical timed automata with discrete probabilistic choice, where the probabilities are allowed to depend on the exact values of the clocks. Previous work has shown that the quantitative reachability problem for clock-dependent probabilistic timed automata with at least three clocks is undecidable. In this paper, we consider the subclass of clock-dependent probabilistic timed automata that have one clock, that have clock dependencies described by affine functions, and that satisfy an initialisation condition requiring that, at some point between taking edges with non-trivial clock dependencies, the clock must have an integer value. We present an approach for solving in polynomial time quantitative and qualitative reachability problems of such one-clock initialised clock-dependent probabilistic timed automata. Our results are obtained by a transformation to interval Markov decision processes.

7. Tight Polynomial Bounds for Loop Programs in Polynomial Space

A. M. Ben-Amram ; G. W. Hamilton.
We consider the following problem: given a program, find tight asymptotic bounds on the values of some variables at the end of the computation (or at any given program point) in terms of its input values. We focus on the case of polynomially-bounded variables, and on a weak programming language for which we have recently shown that tight bounds for polynomially-bounded variables are computable. These bounds are sets of multivariate polynomials. While their computability has been settled, the complexity of this program-analysis problem remained open. In this paper, we show the problem to be PSPACE-complete. The main contribution is a new, space-efficient analysis algorithm. This algorithm is obtained in a few steps. First, we develop an algorithm for univariate bounds, a sub-problem which is already PSPACE-hard. Then, a decision procedure for multivariate bounds is achieved by reducing this problem to the univariate case; this reduction is orthogonal to the solution of the univariate problem and uses observations on the geometry of a set of vectors that represent multivariate bounds. Finally, we transform the univariate-bound algorithm to produce multivariate bounds.

8. Dagger linear logic for categorical quantum mechanics

Robin Cockett ; Cole Comfort ; Priyaa Srinivasan.
Categorical quantum mechanics exploits the dagger compact closed structure of finite dimensional Hilbert spaces, and uses the graphical calculus of string diagrams to facilitate reasoning about finite dimensional processes. A significant portion of quantum physics, however, involves reasoning about infinite dimensional processes, and it is well-known that the category of all Hilbert spaces is not compact closed. Thus, a limitation of using dagger compact closed categories is that one cannot directly accommodate reasoning about infinite dimensional processes. A natural categorical generalization of compact closed categories, in which infinite dimensional spaces can be modelled, is *-autonomous categories and, more generally, linearly distributive categories. This article starts the development of this direction of generalizing categorical quantum mechanics. An important first step is to establish the behaviour of the dagger in these more general settings. Thus, these notes simultaneously develop the categorical semantics of multiplicative dagger linear logic. The notes end with the definition of a mixed unitary category. It is this structure which is subsequently used to extend the key features of categorical quantum mechanics.

9. Dynamic Complexity of Parity Exists Queries

Nils Vortmeier ; Thomas Zeume.
Given a graph whose nodes may be coloured red, the parity of the number of red nodes can easily be maintained with first-order update rules in the dynamic complexity framework DynFO of Patnaik and Immerman. Can this be generalised to other or even all queries that are definable in first-order logic extended by parity quantifiers? We consider the query that asks whether the number of nodes that have an edge to a red node is odd. Already this simple query of quantifier structure parity-exists is a major roadblock for dynamically capturing extensions of first-order logic. We show that this query cannot be maintained with quantifier-free first-order update rules, and that variants induce a hierarchy for such update rules with respect to the arity of the maintained auxiliary relations. Towards maintaining the query with full first-order update rules, it is shown that degree-restricted variants can be maintained.

10. A theory of transaction parallelism in blockchains

Massimo Bartoletti ; Letterio Galletta ; Maurizio Murgia.
Decentralized blockchain platforms have enabled the secure exchange of crypto-assets without the intermediation of trusted authorities. To this purpose, these platforms rely on a peer-to-peer network of byzantine nodes, which collaboratively maintain an append-only ledger of transactions, called blockchain. Transactions represent the actions required by users, e.g. the transfer of some units of crypto-currency to another user, or the execution of a smart contract which distributes crypto-assets according to its internal logic. Part of the nodes of the peer-to-peer network compete to append transactions to the blockchain. To do so, they group the transactions sent by users into blocks, and update their view of the blockchain state by executing these transactions in the chosen order. Once a block of transactions is appended to the blockchain, the other nodes validate it, re-executing the transactions in the same order. The serial execution of transactions does not take advantage of the multi-core architecture of modern processors, so contributing to limit the throughput. In this paper we develop a theory of transaction parallelism for blockchains, which is based on static analysis of transactions and smart contracts. We illustrate how blockchain nodes can use our theory to parallelize the execution of transactions. Initial experiments on Ethereum show that our technique can improve the performance of nodes.

11. Extensional and Intensional Semantics of Bounded and Unbounded Nondeterminism

James Laird.
We give extensional and intensional characterizations of functional programs with nondeterminism: as structure preserving functions between biorders, and as nondeterministic sequential algorithms on ordered concrete data structures which compute them. A fundamental result establishes that these extensional and intensional representations are equivalent, by showing how to construct the unique sequential algorithm which computes a given monotone and stable function, and describing the conditions on sequential algorithms which correspond to continuity with respect to each order. We illustrate by defining may-testing and must-testing denotational semantics for sequential functional languages with bounded and unbounded choice operators. We prove that these are computationally adequate, despite the non-continuity of the must-testing semantics of unbounded nondeterminism. In the bounded case, we prove that our continuous models are fully abstract with respect to may-testing and must-testing by identifying a simple universal type, which may also form the basis for models of the untyped {\lambda}-calculus. In the unbounded case we observe that our model contains computable functions which are not denoted by terms, by identifying a further "weak continuity" property of the definable elements, and use this to establish that it is not fully abstract.

12. Controlling a random population

Thomas Colcombet ; Nathanaël Fijalkow ; Pierre Ohlmann.
Bertrand et al. introduced a model of parameterised systems, where each agent is represented by a finite state system, and studied the following control problem: for any number of agents, does there exist a controller able to bring all agents to a target state? They showed that the problem is decidable and EXPTIME-complete in the adversarial setting, and posed as an open problem the stochastic setting, where the agent is represented by a Markov decision process. In this paper, we show that the stochastic control problem is decidable. Our solution makes significant uses of well quasi orders, of the max-flow min-cut theorem, and of the theory of regular cost functions. We introduce an intermediate problem of independence interest called the sequential flow problem and study its complexity.

13. Time-Fluid Field-Based Coordination through Programmable Distributed Schedulers

Danilo Pianini ; Roberto Casadei ; Mirko Viroli ; Stefano Mariani ; Franco Zambonelli.
Emerging application scenarios, such as cyber-physical systems (CPSs), the Internet of Things (IoT), and edge computing, call for coordination approaches addressing openness, self-adaptation, heterogeneity, and deployment agnosticism. Field-based coordination is one such approach, promoting the idea of programming system coordination declaratively from a global perspective, in terms of functional manipulation and evolution in "space and time" of distributed data structures called fields. More specifically regarding time, in field-based coordination (as in many other distributed approaches to coordination) it is assumed that local activities in each device are regulated by a fair and unsynchronised fixed clock working at the platform level. In this work, we challenge this assumption, and propose an alternative approach where scheduling is programmed in a natural way (along with usual field-based coordination) in terms of causality fields, each enacting a programmable distributed notion of a computation "cause" (why and when a field computation has to be locally computed) and how it should change across time and space. Starting from low-level platform triggers, such causality fields can be organised into multiple layers, up to high-level, collectively-computed time abstractions, to be used at the application level. This reinterpretation of time in terms of articulated causality relations allows us to express what we call "time-fluid" coordination, […]

14. On Supergraphs Satisfying CMSO Properties

Mateus de Oliveira Oliveira.
Let CMSO denote the counting monadic second order logic of graphs. We give a constructive proof that for some computable function $f$, there is an algorithm $\mathfrak{A}$ that takes as input a CMSO sentence $\varphi$, a positive integer $t$, and a connected graph $G$ of maximum degree at most $\Delta$, and determines, in time $f(|\varphi|,t)\cdot 2^{O(\Delta \cdot t)}\cdot |G|^{O(t)}$, whether $G$ has a supergraph $G'$ of treewidth at most $t$ such that $G'\models \varphi$. The algorithmic metatheorem described above sheds new light on certain unresolved questions within the framework of graph completion algorithms. In particular, using this metatheorem, we provide an explicit algorithm that determines, in time $f(d)\cdot 2^{O(\Delta \cdot d)}\cdot |G|^{O(d)}$, whether a connected graph of maximum degree $\Delta$ has a planar supergraph of diameter at most $d$. Additionally, we show that for each fixed $k$, the problem of determining whether $G$ has an $k$-outerplanar supergraph of diameter at most $d$ is strongly uniformly fixed parameter tractable with respect to the parameter $d$. This result can be generalized in two directions. First, the diameter parameter can be replaced by any contraction-closed effectively CMSO-definable parameter $\mathbf{p}$. Examples of such parameters are vertex-cover number, dominating number, and many other contraction-bidimensional parameters. In the second direction, the planarity requirement can be relaxed to bounded genus, and more […]

15. A Probabilistic Higher-order Fixpoint Logic

Yo Mitani ; Naoki Kobayashi ; Takeshi Tsukada.
We introduce PHFL, a probabilistic extension of higher-order fixpoint logic, which can also be regarded as a higher-order extension of probabilistic temporal logics such as PCTL and the $\mu^p$-calculus. We show that PHFL is strictly more expressive than the $\mu^p$-calculus, and that the PHFL model-checking problem for finite Markov chains is undecidable even for the $\mu$-only, order-1 fragment of PHFL. Furthermore the full PHFL is far more expressive: we give a translation from Lubarsky's $\mu$-arithmetic to PHFL, which implies that PHFL model checking is $\Pi^1_1$-hard and $\Sigma^1_1$-hard. As a positive result, we characterize a decidable fragment of the PHFL model-checking problems using a novel type system.

16. A new operational representation of dependencies in Event Structures

G. Michele Pinna.
The execution of an event in a complex and distributed system where the dependencies vary during the evolution of the system can be represented in many ways, and one of them is to use Context-Dependent Event structures. Event structures are related to Petri nets. The aim of this paper is to propose what can be the appropriate kind of Petri net corresponding to Context-Dependent Event structures, giving an operational flavour to the dependencies represented in a Context/Dependent Event structure. Dependencies are often operationally represented, in Petri nets, by tokens produced by activities and consumed by others. Here we shift the perspective using contextual arcs to characterize what has happened so far and in this way to describe the dependencies among the various activities.

17. A Separator Theorem for Hypergraphs and a CSP-SAT Algorithm

Michal Koucký ; Vojtěch Rödl ; Navid Talebanfard.
We show that for every $r \ge 2$ there exists $\epsilon_r > 0$ such that any $r$-uniform hypergraph with $m$ edges and maximum vertex degree $o(\sqrt{m})$ contains a set of at most $(\frac{1}{2} - \epsilon_r)m$ edges the removal of which breaks the hypergraph into connected components with at most $m/2$ edges. We use this to give an algorithm running in time $d^{(1 - \epsilon_r)m}$ that decides satisfiability of $m$-variable $(d, k)$-CSPs in which every variable appears in at most $r$ constraints, where $\epsilon_r$ depends only on $r$ and $k\in o(\sqrt{m})$. Furthermore our algorithm solves the corresponding #CSP-SAT and Max-CSP-SAT of these CSPs. We also show that CNF representations of unsatisfiable $(2, k)$-CSPs with variable frequency $r$ can be refuted in tree-like resolution in size $2^{(1 - \epsilon_r)m}$. Furthermore for Tseitin formulas on graphs with degree at most $k$ (which are $(2, k)$-CSPs) we give a deterministic algorithm finding such a refutation.

18. Efficient Full Higher-Order Unification

Petar Vukmirović ; Alexander Bentkamp ; Visa Nummelin.
We developed a procedure to enumerate complete sets of higher-order unifiers based on work by Jensen and Pietrzykowski. Our procedure removes many redundant unifiers by carefully restricting the search space and tightly integrating decision procedures for fragments that admit a finite complete set of unifiers. We identify a new such fragment and describe a procedure for computing its unifiers. Our unification procedure, together with new higher-order term indexing data structures, is implemented in the Zipperposition theorem prover. Experimental evaluation shows a clear advantage over Jensen and Pietrzykowski's procedure.

19. Expressive Logics for Coinductive Predicates

Clemens Kupke ; Jurriaan Rot.
The classical Hennessy-Milner theorem says that two states of an image-finite transition system are bisimilar if and only if they satisfy the same formulas in a certain modal logic. In this paper we study this type of result in a general context, moving from transition systems to coalgebras and from bisimilarity to coinductive predicates. We formulate when a logic fully characterises a coinductive predicate on coalgebras, by providing suitable notions of adequacy and expressivity, and give sufficient conditions on the semantics. The approach is illustrated with logics characterising similarity, divergence and a behavioural metric on automata.

20. Stashing And Parallelization Pentagons

Vasco Brattka.
Parallelization is an algebraic operation that lifts problems to sequences in a natural way. Given a sequence as an instance of the parallelized problem, another sequence is a solution of this problem if every component is instance-wise a solution of the original problem. In the Weihrauch lattice parallelization is a closure operator. Here we introduce a dual operation that we call stashing and that also lifts problems to sequences, but such that only some component has to be an instance-wise solution. In this case the solution is stashed away in the sequence. This operation, if properly defined, induces an interior operator in the Weihrauch lattice. We also study the action of the monoid induced by stashing and parallelization on the Weihrauch lattice, and we prove that it leads to at most five distinct degrees, which (in the maximal case) are always organized in pentagons. We also introduce another closely related interior operator in the Weihrauch lattice that replaces solutions of problems by upper Turing cones that are strong enough to compute solutions. It turns out that on parallelizable degrees this interior operator corresponds to stashing. This implies that, somewhat surprisingly, all problems which are simultaneously parallelizable and stashable have computability-theoretic characterizations. Finally, we apply all these results in order to study the recently introduced discontinuity problem, which appears as the bottom of a number of natural […]

21. Adaptive Non-linear Pattern Matching Automata

Rick Erkens ; Maurice Laveaux.
Efficient pattern matching is fundamental for practical term rewrite engines. By preprocessing the given patterns into a finite deterministic automaton the matching patterns can be decided in a single traversal of the relevant parts of the input term. Most automaton-based techniques are restricted to linear patterns, where each variable occurs at most once, and require an additional post-processing step to check so-called variable consistency. However, we can show that interleaving the variable consistency and pattern matching phases can reduce the number of required steps to find all matches. Therefore, we take the existing adaptive pattern matching automata as introduced by Sekar et al and extend these with consistency checks. We prove that the resulting deterministic pattern matching automaton is correct, and show several examples where some reduction can be achieved.

22. An application of parallel cut elimination in multiplicative linear logic to the Taylor expansion of proof nets

Jules Chouquet ; Lionel Vaux Auclair.
We examine some combinatorial properties of parallel cut elimination in multiplicative linear logic (MLL) proof nets. We show that, provided we impose a constraint on some paths, we can bound the size of all the nets satisfying this constraint and reducing to a fixed resultant net. This result gives a sufficient condition for an infinite weighted sum of nets to reduce into another sum of nets, while keeping coefficients finite. We moreover show that our constraints are stable under reduction. Our approach is motivated by the quantitative semantics of linear logic: many models have been proposed, whose structure reflect the Taylor expansion of multiplicative exponential linear logic (MELL) proof nets into infinite sums of differential nets. In order to simulate one cut elimination step in MELL, it is necessary to reduce an arbitrary number of cuts in the differential nets of its Taylor expansion. It turns out our results apply to differential nets, because their cut elimination is essentially multiplicative. We moreover show that the set of differential nets that occur in the Taylor expansion of an MELL net automatically satisfies our constraints. Interestingly, our nets are untyped: we only rely on the sequentiality of linear logic nets and the dynamics of cut elimination. The paths on which we impose bounds are the switching paths involved in the Danos--Regnier criterion for sequentiality. In order to accommodate multiplicative units and weakenings, our nets come […]

23. Parametricity for Nested Types and GADTs

Patricia Johann ; Enrico Ghiorzi.
This paper considers parametricity and its consequent free theorems for nested data types. Rather than representing nested types via their Church encodings in a higher-kinded or dependently typed extension of System F, we adopt a functional programming perspective and design a Hindley-Milner-style calculus with primitives for constructing nested types directly as fixpoints. Our calculus can express all nested types appearing in the literature, including truly nested types. At the level of terms, it supports primitive pattern matching, map functions, and fold combinators for nested types. Our main contribution is the construction of a parametric model for our calculus. This is both delicate and challenging. In particular, to ensure the existence of semantic fixpoints interpreting nested types, and thus to establish a suitable Identity Extension Lemma for our calculus, our type system must explicitly track functoriality of types, and cocontinuity conditions on the functors interpreting them must be appropriately threaded throughout the model construction. We also prove that our model satisfies an appropriate Abstraction Theorem, as well as that it verifies all standard consequences of parametricity in the presence of primitive nested types. We give several concrete examples illustrating how our model can be used to derive useful free theorems, including a short cut fusion transformation, for programs over nested types. Finally, we consider generalizing our results to GADTs, and […]

24. A coalgebraic take on regular and $\omega$-regular behaviours

Tomasz Brengos.
We present a general coalgebraic setting in which we define finite and infinite behaviour with Büchi acceptance condition for systems whose type is a monad. The first part of the paper is devoted to presenting a construction of a monad suitable for modelling (in)finite behaviour. The second part of the paper focuses on presenting the concepts of a (coalgebraic) automaton and its ($\omega$-) behaviour. We end the paper with coalgebraic Kleene-type theorems for ($\omega$-) regular input. The framework is instantiated on non-deterministic (Büchi) automata, tree automata and probabilistic automata.

25. On Higher-Order Probabilistic Subrecursion

Flavien Breuvart ; Ugo Dal Lago ; Agathe Herrou.
We study the expressive power of subrecursive probabilistic higher-order calculi. More specifically, we show that endowing a very expressive deterministic calculus like Gödel's $\mathbb{T}$ with various forms of probabilistic choice operators may result in calculi which are not equivalent as for the class of distributions they give rise to, although they all guarantee almost-sure termination. Along the way, we introduce a probabilistic variation of the classic reducibility technique, and we prove that the simplest form of probabilistic choice leaves the expressive power of $\mathbb{T}$ essentially unaltered. The paper ends with some observations about the functional expressive power: expectedly, all the considered calculi capture the functions which $\mathbb{T}$ itself represents, at least when standard notions of observations are considered.

26. Architectures in parametric component-based systems: Qualitative and quantitative modelling

Maria Pittou ; George Rahonis.
One of the key aspects in component-based design is specifying the software architecture that characterizes the topology and the permissible interactions of the components of a system. To achieve well-founded design there is need to address both the qualitative and non-functional aspects of architectures. In this paper we study the qualitative and quantitative formal modelling of architectures applied on parametric component-based systems, that consist of an unknown number of instances of each component. Specifically, we introduce an extended propositional interaction logic and investigate its first-order level which serves as a formal language for the interactions of parametric systems. Our logics achieve to encode the execution order of interactions, which is a main feature in several important architectures, as well as to model recursive interactions. Moreover, we prove the decidability of equivalence, satisfiability, and validity of first-order extended interaction logic formulas, and provide several examples of formulas describing well-known architectures. We show the robustness of our theory by effectively extending our results for parametric weighted architectures. For this, we study the weighted counterparts of our logics over a commutative semiring, and we apply them for modelling the quantitative aspects of concrete architectures. Finally, we prove that the equivalence problem of weighted first-order extended interaction logic formulas is decidable in a large class […]