Volume 19, Issue 1


1. Multiparty testing preorders

Rocco de Nicola ; Hernán Melgratti.
Variants of the must testing approach have been successfully applied in service oriented computing for analysing the compliance between (contracts exposed by) clients and servers or, more generally, between two peers. It has however been argued that multiparty scenarios call for more permissive notions of compliance because partners usually do not have full coordination capabilities. We propose two new testing preorders, which are obtained by restricting the set of potential observers. For the first preorder, called uncoordinated, we allow only sets of parallel observers that use different parts of the interface of a given service and have no possibility of intercommunication. For the second preorder, that we call individualistic, we instead rely on parallel observers that perceive as silent all the actions that are not in the interface of interest. We have that the uncoordinated preorder is coarser than the classical must testing preorder and finer than the individualistic one. We also provide a characterisation in terms of decorated traces for both preorders: the uncoordinated preorder is defined in terms of must-sets and Mazurkiewicz traces while the individualistic one is described in terms of classes of filtered traces that only contain designated visible actions and must-sets.

2. Stream processors and comodels

Richard Garner.
In 2009, Hancock, Pattinson and Ghani gave a coalgebraic characterisation of stream processors $A^\mathbb{N} \to B^\mathbb{N}$ drawing on ideas of Brouwerian constructivism. Their stream processors have an intensional character; in this paper, we give a corresponding coalgebraic characterisation of extensional stream processors, i.e., the set of continuous functions $A^\mathbb{N} \to B^\mathbb{N}$. Our account sites both our result and that of op. cit. within the apparatus of comodels for algebraic effects originating with Power-Shkaravska. Within this apparatus, the distinction between intensional and extensional equivalence for stream processors arises in the same way as the the distinction between bisimulation and trace equivalence for labelled transition systems and probabilistic generative systems.

3. Deconfined Global Types for Asynchronous Sessions

Francesco Dagnino ; Paola Giannini ; Mariangiola Dezani-Ciancaglini.
Multiparty sessions with asynchronous communications and global types play an important role for the modelling of interaction protocols in distributed systems. In designing such calculi the aim is to enforce, by typing, good properties for all participants, maximising, at the same time, the accepted behaviours. Our type system improves the state-of-the-art by typing all asynchronous sessions and preserving the key properties of Subject Reduction, Session Fidelity and Progress when some well-formedness conditions are satisfied. The type system comes together with a sound and complete type inference algorithm. The well-formedness conditions are undecidable, but an algorithm checking an expressive restriction of them recovers the effectiveness of typing.

4. Coalgebras for Bisimulation of Weighted Automata over Semirings

Purandar Bhaduri.
Weighted automata are a generalization of nondeterministic automata that associate a weight drawn from a semiring $K$ with every transition and every state. Their behaviours can be formalized either as weighted language equivalence or weighted bisimulation. In this paper we explore the properties of weighted automata in the framework of coalgebras over (i) the category $\mathsf{SMod}$ of semimodules over a semiring $K$ and $K$-linear maps, and (ii) the category $\mathsf{Set}$ of sets and maps. We show that the behavioural equivalences defined by the corresponding final coalgebras in these two cases characterize weighted language equivalence and weighted bisimulation, respectively. These results extend earlier work by Bonchi et al. using the category $\mathsf{Vect}$ of vector spaces and linear maps as the underlying model for weighted automata with weights drawn from a field $K$. The key step in our work is generalizing the notions of linear relation and linear bisimulation of Boreale from vector spaces to semimodules using the concept of the kernel of a $K$-linear map in the sense of universal algebra. We also provide an abstract procedure for forward partition refinement for computing weighted language equivalence. Since for weighted automata defined over semirings the problem is undecidable in general, it is guaranteed to halt only in special cases. We provide sufficient conditions for the termination of our procedure. Although the results are similar to those of Bonchi et […]

5. Survey on Parameterized Verification with Threshold Automata and the Byzantine Model Checker

Igor Konnov ; Marijana Lazić ; Ilina Stoilkovska ; Josef Widder.
Threshold guards are a basic primitive of many fault-tolerant algorithms that solve classical problems in distributed computing, such as reliable broadcast, two-phase commit, and consensus. Moreover, threshold guards can be found in recent blockchain algorithms such as, e.g., Tendermint consensus. In this article, we give an overview of techniques for automated verification of threshold-guarded fault-tolerant distributed algorithms, implemented in the Byzantine Model Checker (ByMC). These threshold-guarded algorithms have the following features: (1) up to $t$ of processes may crash or behave Byzantine; (2) the correct processes count messages and make progress when they receive sufficiently many messages, e.g., at least $t+1$; (3) the number $n$ of processes in the system is a parameter, as well as the number $t$ of faults; and (4) the parameters are restricted by a resilience condition, e.g., $n > 3t$. Traditionally, these algorithms were implemented in distributed systems with up to ten participating processes. Nowadays, they are implemented in distributed systems that involve hundreds or thousands of processes. To make sure that these algorithms are still correct for that scale, it is imperative to verify them for all possible values of the parameters.

6. Computation Against a Neighbour: Addressing Large-Scale Distribution and Adaptivity with Functional Programming and Scala

Giorgio Audrito ; Roberto Casadei ; Ferruccio Damiani ; Mirko Viroli.
Recent works in contexts like the Internet of Things (IoT) and large-scale Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) propose the idea of programming distributed systems by focussing on their global behaviour across space and time. In this view, a potentially vast and heterogeneous set of devices is considered as an "aggregate" to be programmed as a whole, while abstracting away the details of individual behaviour and exchange of messages, which are expressed declaratively. One such a paradigm, known as aggregate programming, builds on computational models inspired by field-based coordination. Existing models such as the field calculus capture interaction with neighbours by a so-called "neighbouring field" (a map from neighbours to values). This requires ad-hoc mechanisms to smoothly compose with standard values, thus complicating programming and introducing clutter in aggregate programs, libraries and domain-specific languages (DSLs). To address this key issue we introduce the novel notion of "computation against a neighbour", whereby the evaluation of certain subexpressions of the aggregate program are affected by recent corresponding evaluations in neighbours. We capture this notion in the neighbours calculus (NC), a new field calculus variant which is shown to smoothly support declarative specification of interaction with neighbours, and correspondingly facilitate the embedding of field computations as internal DSLs in common general-purpose programming […]

7. Concurrent Process Histories and Resource Transducers

Chad Nester.
We identify the algebraic structure of the material histories generated by concurrent processes. Specifically, we extend existing categorical theories of resource convertibility to capture concurrent interaction. Our formalism admits an intuitive graphical presentation via string diagrams for proarrow equipments. We also consider certain induced categories of resource transducers, which are of independent interest due to their unusual structure.

8. Completeness of Nominal PROPs

Samuel Balco ; Alexander Kurz.
We introduce nominal string diagrams as string diagrams internal in the category of nominal sets. This leads us to define nominal PROPs and nominal monoidal theories. We show that the categories of ordinary PROPs and nominal PROPs are equivalent. This equivalence is then extended to symmetric monoidal theories and nominal monoidal theories, which allows us to transfer completeness results between ordinary and nominal calculi for string diagrams.

9. A proof system for graph (non)-isomorphism verification

Milan Banković ; Ivan Drecun ; Filip Marić.
In order to apply canonical labelling of graphs and isomorphism checking in interactive theorem provers, these checking algorithms must either be mechanically verified or their results must be verifiable by independent checkers. We analyze a state-of-the-art algorithm for canonical labelling of graphs (described by McKay and Piperno) and formulate it in terms of a formal proof system. We provide an implementation that can export a proof that the obtained graph is the canonical form of a given graph. Such proofs are then verified by our independent checker and can be used to confirm that two given graphs are not isomorphic.