Volume 20, Issue 3

1. On the Satisfiability of Local First-Order Logics with Data

Benedikt Bollig ; Arnaud Sangnier ; Olivier Stietel.
We study first-order logic over unordered structures whose elements carry a finite number of data values from an infinite domain. Data values can be compared wrt.\ equality. As the satisfiability problem for this logic is undecidable in general, we introduce a family of local fragments. They restrict quantification to the neighbourhood of a given reference point that is bounded by some radius. Our first main result establishes decidability of the satisfiability problem for the local radius-1 fragment in presence of one "diagonal relation". On the other hand, extending the radius leads to undecidability. In a second part, we provide the precise decidability and complexity landscape of the satisfiability problem for the existential fragments of local logic, which are parameterized by the number of data values carried by each element and the radius of the considered neighbourhoods. Altogether, we draw a landscape of formalisms that are suitable for the specification of systems with data and open up new avenues for future research.

2. Simulations for Event-Clock Automata

S Akshay ; Paul Gastin ; R Govind ; B Srivathsan.
Event-clock automata (ECA) are a well-known semantic subclass of timed automata (TA) which enjoy admirable theoretical properties, e.g., determinizability, and are practically useful to capture timed specifications. However, unlike for timed automata, there exist no implementations for checking non-emptiness of event-clock automata. As ECAs contain special prophecy clocks that guess and maintain the time to the next occurrence of specific events, they cannot be seen as a syntactic subclass of TA. Therefore, implementations for TA cannot be directly used for ECAs, and moreover the translation of an ECA to a semantically equivalent TA is expensive. Another reason for the lack of ECA implementations is the difficulty in adapting zone-based algorithms, critical in the timed automata setting, to the event-clock automata setting. This difficulty was studied by Geeraerts et al. in 2011, where the authors proposed a zone enumeration procedure that uses zone extrapolations for finiteness. In this article, we propose a different zone-based algorithm to solve the reachability problem for event-clock automata, using simulations for finiteness. A surprising consequence of our result is that for event-predicting automata, the subclass of event-clock automata that only use prophecy clocks, we obtain finiteness even without any simulations. For general event-clock automata, our new algorithm exploits the G-simulation framework, which is the coarsest known simulation relation in timed […]

3. Fully Abstract Encodings of $\lambda$-Calculus in HOcore through Abstract Machines

Małgorzata Biernacka ; Dariusz Biernacki ; Sergueï Lenglet ; Piotr Polesiuk ; Damien Pous ; Alan Schmitt.
We present fully abstract encodings of the call-by-name and call-by-value $\lambda$-calculus into HOcore, a minimal higher-order process calculus with no name restriction. We consider several equivalences on the $\lambda$-calculus side -- normal-form bisimilarity, applicative bisimilarity, and contextual equivalence -- that we internalize into abstract machines in order to prove full abstraction of the encodings. We also demonstrate that this technique scales to the $\lambda\mu$-calculus, i.e., a standard extension of the $\lambda$-calculus with control operators.

4. Twin-width and permutations

Édouard Bonnet ; Jaroslav Nešetřil ; Patrice Ossona de Mendez ; Sebastian Siebertz ; Stéphan Thomassé.
Inspired by a width invariant on permutations defined by Guillemot and Marx, Bonnet, Kim, Thomassé, and Watrigant introduced the twin-width of graphs, which is a parameter describing its structural complexity. This invariant has been further extended to binary structures, in several (basically equivalent) ways. We prove that a class of binary relational structures (that is: edge-colored partially directed graphs) has bounded twin-width if and only if it is a first-order transduction of a~proper permutation class. As a by-product, we show that every class with bounded twin-width contains at most $2^{O(n)}$ pairwise non-isomorphic $n$-vertex graphs.

5. Operations on Fixpoint Equation Systems

Thomas Neele ; Jaco van de Pol.
We study operations on fixpoint equation systems (FES) over arbitrary complete lattices. We investigate under which conditions these operations, such as substituting variables by their definition, and swapping the ordering of equations, preserve the solution of a FES. We provide rigorous, computer-checked proofs. Along the way, we list a number of known and new identities and inequalities on extremal fixpoints in complete lattices.

6. Many-valued coalgebraic logic over semi-primal varieties

Alexander Kurz ; Wolfgang Poiger ; Bruno Teheux.
We study many-valued coalgebraic logics with semi-primal algebras of truth-degrees. We provide a systematic way to lift endofunctors defined on the variety of Boolean algebras to endofunctors on the variety generated by a semi-primal algebra. We show that this can be extended to a technique to lift classical coalgebraic logics to many-valued ones, and that (one-step) completeness and expressivity are preserved under this lifting. For specific classes of endofunctors, we also describe how to obtain an axiomatization of the lifted many-valued logic directly from an axiomatization of the original classical one. In particular, we apply all of these techniques to classical modal logic.