Volume 11, Issue 4


1. Expressive Path Queries on Graph with Data

Pablo Barcelo ; Gaelle Fontaine ; Anthony Widjaja Lin.
Graph data models have recently become popular owing to their applications, e.g., in social networks and the semantic web. Typical navigational query languages over graph databases - such as Conjunctive Regular Path Queries (CRPQs) - cannot express relevant properties of the interaction between the underlying data and the topology. Two languages have been recently proposed to overcome this problem: walk logic (WL) and regular expressions with memory (REM). In this paper, we begin by investigating fundamental properties of WL and REM, i.e., complexity of evaluation problems and expressive power. We first show that the data complexity of WL is nonelementary, which rules out its practicality. On the other hand, while REM has low data complexity, we point out that many natural data/topology properties of graphs expressible in WL cannot be expressed in REM. To this end, we propose register logic, an extension of REM, which we show to be able to express many natural graph properties expressible in WL, while at the same time preserving the elementariness of data complexity of REMs. It is also incomparable to WL in terms of expressive power.

2. Logic and Branching Automata

Bedon Nicolas.
In this paper we study the logical aspects of branching automata, as defined by Lodaya and Weil. We first prove that the class of languages of finite N-free posets recognized by branching automata is closed under complementation. Then we define a logic, named P-MSO as it is a extension of monadic second-order logic with Presburger arithmetic, and show that it is precisely as expressive as branching automata. As a consequence of the effectiveness of the construction of one formalism from the other, the P-MSO theory of the class of all finite N-free posets is decidable.

3. The computability path ordering

Frédéric Blanqui ; Jean-Pierre Jouannaud ; Albert Rubio.
This paper aims at carrying out termination proofs for simply typed higher-order calculi automatically by using ordering comparisons. To this end, we introduce the computability path ordering (CPO), a recursive relation on terms obtained by lifting a precedence on function symbols. A first version, core CPO, is essentially obtained from the higher-order recursive path ordering (HORPO) by eliminating type checks from some recursive calls and by incorporating the treatment of bound variables as in the com-putability closure. The well-foundedness proof shows that core CPO captures the essence of computability arguments á la Tait and Girard, therefore explaining its name. We further show that no further type check can be eliminated from its recursive calls without loosing well-foundedness, but for one for which we found no counterexample yet. Two extensions of core CPO are then introduced which allow one to consider: the first, higher-order inductive types; the second, a precedence in which some function symbols are smaller than application and abstraction.

4. Formal Design of Asynchronous Fault Detection and Identification Components using Temporal Epistemic Logic

Marco Bozzano ; Alessandro Cimatti ; Marco Gario ; Stefano Tonetta.
Autonomous critical systems, such as satellites and space rovers, must be able to detect the occurrence of faults in order to ensure correct operation. This task is carried out by Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) components, that are embedded in those systems and are in charge of detecting faults in an automated and timely manner by reading data from sensors and triggering predefined alarms. The design of effective FDI components is an extremely hard problem, also due to the lack of a complete theoretical foundation, and of precise specification and validation techniques. In this paper, we present the first formal approach to the design of FDI components for discrete event systems, both in a synchronous and asynchronous setting. We propose a logical language for the specification of FDI requirements that accounts for a wide class of practical cases, and includes novel aspects such as maximality and trace-diagnosability. The language is equipped with a clear semantics based on temporal epistemic logic, and is proved to enjoy suitable properties. We discuss how to validate the requirements and how to verify that a given FDI component satisfies them. We propose an algorithm for the synthesis of correct-by-construction FDI components, and report on the applicability of the design approach on an industrial case-study coming from aerospace.

5. Quantitative information flow under generic leakage functions and adaptive adversaries

M. Boreale ; Francesca Pampaloni.
We put forward a model of action-based randomization mechanisms to analyse quantitative information flow (QIF) under generic leakage functions, and under possibly adaptive adversaries. This model subsumes many of the QIF models proposed so far. Our main contributions include the following: (1) we identify mild general conditions on the leakage function under which it is possible to derive general and significant results on adaptive QIF; (2) we contrast the efficiency of adaptive and non-adaptive strategies, showing that the latter are as efficient as the former in terms of length up to an expansion factor bounded by the number of available actions; (3) we show that the maximum information leakage over strategies, given a finite time horizon, can be expressed in terms of a Bellman equation. This can be used to compute an optimal finite strategy recursively, by resorting to standard methods like backward induction.

6. Finite choice, convex choice and finding roots

Stéphane Le Roux ; Arno Pauly.
We investigate choice principles in the Weihrauch lattice for finite sets on the one hand, and convex sets on the other hand. Increasing cardinality and increasing dimension both correspond to increasing Weihrauch degrees. Moreover, we demonstrate that the dimension of convex sets can be characterized by the cardinality of finite sets encodable into them. Precisely, choice from an n+1 point set is reducible to choice from a convex set of dimension n, but not reducible to choice from a convex set of dimension n-1. Furthermore we consider searching for zeros of continuous functions. We provide an algorithm producing 3n real numbers containing all zeros of a continuous function with up to n local minima. This demonstrates that having finitely many zeros is a strictly weaker condition than having finitely many local extrema. We can prove 3n to be optimal.

7. A decidable weakening of Compass Logic based on cone-shaped cardinal directions

Angelo Montanari ; Gabriele Puppis ; Pietro Sala.
We introduce a modal logic, called Cone Logic, whose formulas describe properties of points in the plane and spatial relationships between them. Points are labelled by proposition letters and spatial relations are induced by the four cone-shaped cardinal directions. Cone Logic can be seen as a weakening of Venema's Compass Logic. We prove that, unlike Compass Logic and other projection-based spatial logics, its satisfiability problem is decidable (precisely, PSPACE-complete). We also show that it is expressive enough to capture meaningful interval temporal logics - in particular, the interval temporal logic of Allen's relations "Begins", "During", and "Later", and their transposes.

8. Faster Existential FO Model Checking on Posets

Jakub Gajarský ; Petr Hliněný ; Jan Obdržálek ; Sebastian Ordyniak.
We prove that the model checking problem for the existential fragment of first-order (FO) logic on partially ordered sets is fixed-parameter tractable (FPT) with respect to the formula and the width of a poset (the maximum size of an antichain). While there is a long line of research into FO model checking on graphs, the study of this problem on posets has been initiated just recently by Bova, Ganian and Szeider (CSL-LICS 2014), who proved that the existential fragment of FO has an FPT algorithm for a poset of fixed width. We improve upon their result in two ways: (1) the runtime of our algorithm is O(f(|{\phi}|,w).n^2) on n-element posets of width w, compared to O(g(|{\phi}|). n^{h(w)}) of Bova et al., and (2) our proofs are simpler and easier to follow. We complement this result by showing that, under a certain complexity-theoretical assumption, the existential FO model checking problem does not have a polynomial kernel.

9. From nominal to higher-order rewriting and back again

Jesús Domínguez ; Maribel Fernández.
We present a translation function from nominal rewriting systems (NRSs) to combinatory reduction systems (CRSs), transforming closed nominal rules and ground nominal terms to CRSs rules and terms, respectively, while preserving the rewriting relation. We also provide a reduction-preserving translation in the other direction, from CRSs to NRSs, improving over a previously defined translation. These tools, together with existing translations between CRSs and other higher-order rewriting formalisms, open up the path for a transfer of results between higher-order and nominal rewriting. In particular, techniques and properties of the rewriting relation, such as termination, can be exported from one formalism to the other.

10. Problems in number theory from busy beaver competition

Pascal Michel.
By introducing the busy beaver competition of Turing machines, in 1962, Rado defined noncomputable functions on positive integers. The study of these functions and variants leads to many mathematical challenges. This article takes up the following one: How can a small Turing machine manage to produce very big numbers? It provides the following answer: mostly by simulating Collatz-like functions, that are generalizations of the famous 3x+1 function. These functions, like the 3x+1 function, lead to new unsolved problems in number theory.

11. FO Model Checking of Interval Graphs

Robert Ganian ; Petr Hlineny ; Daniel Kral ; Jan Obdrzalek ; Jarett Schwartz ; Jakub Teska.
We study the computational complexity of the FO model checking problem on interval graphs, i.e., intersection graphs of intervals on the real line. The main positive result is that FO model checking and successor-invariant FO model checking can be solved in time O(n log n) for n-vertex interval graphs with representations containing only intervals with lengths from a prescribed finite set. We complement this result by showing that the same is not true if the lengths are restricted to any set that is dense in an open subset, e.g., in the set $(1, 1 + \varepsilon)$.

12. Modular session types for objects

Simon J. Gay ; Nils Gesbert ; António Ravara ; Vasco T. Vasconcelos.
Session types allow communication protocols to be specified type-theoretically so that protocol implementations can be verified by static type checking. We extend previous work on session types for distributed object-oriented languages in three ways. (1) We attach a session type to a class definition, to specify the possible sequences of method calls. (2) We allow a session type (protocol) implementation to be modularized, i.e. partitioned into separately-callable methods. (3) We treat session-typed communication channels as objects, integrating their session types with the session types of classes. The result is an elegant unification of communication channels and their session types, distributed object-oriented programming, and a form of typestate supporting non-uniform objects, i.e. objects that dynamically change the set of available methods. We define syntax, operational se-mantics, a sound type system, and a sound and complete type checking algorithm for a small distributed class-based object-oriented language with structural subtyping. Static typing guarantees that both sequences of messages on channels, and sequences of method calls on objects, conform to type-theoretic specifications, thus ensuring type-safety. The language includes expected features of session types, such as delegation, and expected features of object-oriented programming, such as encapsulation of local state.

13. Type Reconstruction for the Linear \pi-Calculus with Composite Regular Types

Luca Padovani.
We extend the linear {\pi}-calculus with composite regular types in such a way that data containing linear values can be shared among several processes, if there is no overlapping access to such values. We describe a type reconstruction algorithm for the extended type system and discuss some practical aspects of its implementation.

14. Datalog Rewritings of Regular Path Queries using Views

Nadime Francis ; Luc Segoufin ; Cristina Sirangelo.
We consider query answering using views on graph databases, i.e. databases structured as edge-labeled graphs. We mainly consider views and queries specified by Regular Path Queries (RPQ). These are queries selecting pairs of nodes in a graph database that are connected via a path whose sequence of edge labels belongs to some regular language. We say that a view V determines a query Q if for all graph databases D, the view image V(D) always contains enough information to answer Q on D. In other words, there is a well defined function from V(D) to Q(D). Our main result shows that when this function is monotone, there exists a rewriting of Q as a Datalog query over the view instance V(D). In particular the rewriting query can be evaluated in time polynomial in the size of V(D). Moreover this implies that it is decidable whether an RPQ query can be rewritten in Datalog using RPQ views.

15. Structurally Cyclic Petri Nets

Drewes Frank ; Leroux Jérôme.
A Petri net is structurally cyclic if every configuration is reachable from itself in one or more steps. We show that structural cyclicity is decidable in deterministic polynomial time. For this, we adapt the Kosaraju's approach for the general reachability problem for Petri nets.

16. Bisimulation of Labelled State-to-Function Transition Systems Coalgebraically

Diego Latella ; Mieke Massink ; Erik P De Vink.
Labeled state-to-function transition systems, FuTS for short, are characterized by transitions which relate states to functions of states over general semirings, equipped with a rich set of higher-order operators. As such, FuTS constitute a convenient modeling instrument to deal with process languages and their quantitative extensions in particular. In this paper, the notion of bisimulation induced by a FuTS is addressed from a coalgebraic point of view. A correspondence result is established stating that FuTS-bisimilarity coincides with behavioural equivalence of the associated functor. As generic examples, the equivalences underlying substantial fragments of major examples of quantitative process algebras are related to the bisimilarity of specific FuTS. The examples range from a stochastic process language, PEPA, to a language for Interactive Markov Chains, IML, a (discrete) timed process language, TPC, and a language for Markov Automata, MAL. The equivalences underlying these languages are related to the bisimilarity of their specific FuTS. By the correspondence result coalgebraic justification of the equivalences of these calculi is obtained. The specific selection of languages, besides covering a large variety of process interaction models and modelling choices involving quantities, allows us to show different classes of FuTS, namely so-called simple FuTS, combined FuTS, nested FuTS, and general FuTS.

17. Preservation and decomposition theorems for bounded degree structures

Frederik Harwath ; Lucas Heimberg ; Nicole Schweikardt.
We provide elementary algorithms for two preservation theorems for first-order sentences (FO) on the class âd of all finite structures of degree at most d: For each FO-sentence that is preserved under extensions (homomorphisms) on âd, a âd-equivalent existential (existential-positive) FO-sentence can be constructed in 5-fold (4-fold) exponential time. This is complemented by lower bounds showing that a 3-fold exponential blow-up of the computed existential (existential-positive) sentence is unavoidable. Both algorithms can be extended (while maintaining the upper and lower bounds on their time complexity) to input first-order sentences with modulo m counting quantifiers (FO+MODm). Furthermore, we show that for an input FO-formula, a âd-equivalent Feferman-Vaught decomposition can be computed in 3-fold exponential time. We also provide a matching lower bound.

18. A finer reduction of constraint problems to digraphs

Jakub Bulín ; Dejan Delic ; Marcel Jackson ; Todd Niven.
It is well known that the constraint satisfaction problem over a general relational structure A is polynomial time equivalent to the constraint problem over some associated digraph. We present a variant of this construction and show that the corresponding constraint satisfaction problem is logspace equivalent to that over A. Moreover, we show that almost all of the commonly encountered polymorphism properties are held equivalently on the A and the constructed digraph. As a consequence, the Algebraic CSP dichotomy conjecture as well as the conjectures characterizing CSPs solvable in logspace and in nondeterministic logspace are equivalent to their restriction to digraphs.

19. A Program Logic for Verifying Secure Routing Protocols

Chen Chen ; Limin Jia ; Hao Xu ; Cheng Luo ; Wenchao Zhou ; Boon Thau Loo.
The Internet, as it stands today, is highly vulnerable to attacks. However, little has been done to understand and verify the formal security guarantees of proposed secure inter-domain routing protocols, such as Secure BGP (S-BGP). In this paper, we develop a sound program logic for SANDLog-a declarative specification language for secure routing protocols for verifying properties of these protocols. We prove invariant properties of SANDLog programs that run in an adversarial environment. As a step towards automated verification, we implement a verification condition generator (VCGen) to automatically extract proof obligations. VCGen is integrated into a compiler for SANDLog that can generate executable protocol implementations; and thus, both verification and empirical evaluation of secure routing protocols can be carried out in this unified framework. To validate our framework, we encoded several proposed secure routing mechanisms in SANDLog, verified variants of path authenticity properties by manually discharging the generated verification conditions in Coq, and generated executable code based on SANDLog specification and ran the code in simulation.

20. Computational Problems in Metric Fixed Point Theory and their Weihrauch Degrees

Eike Neumann.
We study the computational difficulty of the problem of finding fixed points of nonexpansive mappings in uniformly convex Banach spaces. We show that the fixed point sets of computable nonexpansive self-maps of a nonempty, computably weakly closed, convex and bounded subset of a computable real Hilbert space are precisely the nonempty, co-r.e. weakly closed, convex subsets of the domain. A uniform version of this result allows us to determine the Weihrauch degree of the Browder-Goehde-Kirk theorem in computable real Hilbert space: it is equivalent to a closed choice principle, which receives as input a closed, convex and bounded set via negative information in the weak topology and outputs a point in the set, represented in the strong topology. While in finite dimensional uniformly convex Banach spaces, computable nonexpansive mappings always have computable fixed points, on the unit ball in infinite-dimensional separable Hilbert space the Browder-Goehde-Kirk theorem becomes Weihrauch-equivalent to the limit operator, and on the Hilbert cube it is equivalent to Weak Koenig's Lemma. In particular, computable nonexpansive mappings may not have any computable fixed points in infinite dimension. We also study the computational difficulty of the problem of finding rates of convergence for a large class of fixed point iterations, which generalise both Halpern- and Mann-iterations, and prove that the problem of finding rates of convergence already on the unit interval is equivalent […]

21. Type-based Self-stabilisation for Computational Fields

Ferruccio Damiani ; Mirko Viroli.
Emerging network scenarios require the development of solid large-scale situated systems. Unfortunately, the diffusion/aggregation computational processes therein often introduce a source of complexity that hampers predictability of the overall system behaviour. Computational fields have been introduced to help engineering such systems: they are spatially distributed data structures designed to adapt their shape to the topology of the underlying (mobile) network and to the events occurring in it, with notable applications to pervasive computing, sensor networks, and mobile robots. To assure behavioural correctness, namely, correspondence of micro-level specification (single device behaviour) with macro-level behaviour (resulting global spatial pattern), we investigate the issue of self-stabilisation for computational fields. We present a tiny, expressive, and type-sound calculus of computational fields, and define sufficient conditions for self-stabilisation, defined as the ability to react to changes in the environment finding a new stable state in finite time. A type-based approach is used to provide a correct checking procedure for self-stabilisation.

22. Typed realizability for first-order classical analysis

Valentin Blot.
We describe a realizability framework for classical first-order logic in which realizers live in (a model of) typed {\lambda}{\mu}-calculus. This allows a direct interpretation of classical proofs, avoiding the usual negative translation to intuitionistic logic. We prove that the usual terms of Gödel's system T realize the axioms of Peano arithmetic, and that under some assumptions on the computational model, the bar recursion operator realizes the axiom of dependent choice. We also perform a proper analysis of relativization, which allows for less technical proofs of adequacy. Extraction of algorithms from proofs of {\Pi}02 formulas relies on a novel implementation of Friedman's trick exploiting the control possibilities of the language. This allows to have extracted programs with simpler types than in the case of negative translation followed by intuitionistic realizability.