Editors: Martín Escardó, Mathieu Hoyrup, Ker-I Ko, Robert Rettinger, Ning Zhong

The conference and this special issue are concerned with Computable Analysis, the theory of computability and complexity over real-valued data. Computability theory studies the limitations and abilities of computers in principle. Computational complexity theory provides a framework for understanding the cost of solving computational problems, as measured by the requirement for resources such as time and space. In particular, Computable Analysis supplies an algorithmic foundation for numerical computation.

We thank all authors for their contributions; the referees for their thorough and diligent work; the members of the organizing committee of the conference at LORIA-Inria for their help; and the editors from LMCS for their support.

Martin Escardó, University of Birmingham, UK,

Mathieu Hoyrup, Loria-Inria, France,

Ker-I Ko, SUNY at Stony Brook, USA,

Robert Rettinger, Fachhochschule Dortmund, Germany,

Ning Zhong, University of Cincinnati, USA,

Guest Editors.

A semi-computable set S in a computable metric space need not be computable. However, in some cases, if S has certain topological properties, we can conclude that S is computable. It is known that if a semi-computable set S is a compact manifold with boundary, then the computability of \deltaS implies the computability of S. In this paper we examine the case when S is a 1-manifold with boundary, not necessarily compact. We show that a similar result holds in this case under assumption that S has finitely many components.

Classification problems have been introduced by M. Ziegler as a generalization of promise problems. In this paper we are concerned with solvability and unsolvability questions with respect to a given set or language family, especially with cores of unsolvability. We generalize the results about unsolvability cores in promise problems to classification problems. Our main results are a characterization of unsolvability cores via cohesiveness and existence theorems for such cores in unsolvable classification problems. In contrast to promise problems we have to strengthen the conditions to assert the existence of such cores. In general unsolvable classification problems with more than two components exist, which possess no cores, even if the set family under consideration satisfies the assumptions which are necessary to prove the existence of cores in unsolvable promise problems. But, if one of the components is fixed we can use the results on unsolvability cores in promise problems, to assert the existence of such cores in general. In this case we speak of conditional classification problems and conditional cores. The existence of conditional cores can be related to complexity cores. Using this connection we can prove for language families, that conditional cores with recursive components exist, provided that this family admits an uniform solution for the word problem.

This article is a fundamental study in computable measure theory. We use the framework of TTE, the representation approach, where computability on an abstract set X is defined by representing its elements with concrete "names", possibly countably infinite, over some alphabet {\Sigma}. As a basic computability structure we consider a computable measure on a computable $\sigma$-algebra. We introduce and compare w.r.t. reducibility several natural representations of measurable sets. They are admissible and generally form four different equivalence classes. We then compare our representations with those introduced by Y. Wu and D. Ding in 2005 and 2006 and claim that one of our representations is the most useful one for studying computability on measurable functions.

By the Riesz representation theorem using the Riemann-Stieltjes integral, linear continuous functionals on the set of continuous functions from the unit interval into the reals can either be characterized by functions of bounded variation from the unit interval into the reals, or by signed measures on the Borel-subsets. Each of these objects has an (even minimal) Jordan decomposition into non-negative or non-decreasing objects. Using the representation approach to computable analysis, a computable version of the Riesz representation theorem has been proved by Jafarikhah, Lu and Weihrauch. In this article we extend this result. We study the computable relation between three Banach spaces, the space of linear continuous functionals with operator norm, the space of (normalized) functions of bounded variation with total variation norm, and the space of bounded signed Borel measures with variation norm. We introduce natural representations for defining computability. We prove that the canonical linear bijections between these spaces and their inverses are computable. We also prove that Jordan decomposition is computable on each of these spaces.

We study Doob's martingale convergence theorem for computable continuous time martingales on Brownian motion, in the context of algorithmic randomness. A characterization of the class of sample points for which the theorem holds is given. Such points are given the name of Doob random points. It is shown that a point is Doob random if its tail is computably random in a certain sense. Moreover, Doob randomness is strictly weaker than computable randomness and is incomparable with Schnorr randomness.

This paper defines a new notion of bounded computable randomness for certain classes of sub-computable functions which lack a universal machine. In particular, we define such versions of randomness for primitive recursive functions and for PSPACE functions. These new notions are robust in that there are equivalent formulations in terms of (1) Martin-Löf tests, (2) Kolmogorov complexity, and (3) martingales. We show these notions can be equivalently defined with prefix-free Kolmogorov complexity. We prove that one direction of van Lambalgen's theorem holds for relative computability, but the other direction fails. We discuss statistical properties of these notions of randomness.

We analyze the strength of Helly's selection theorem HST, which is the most important compactness theorem on the space of functions of bounded variation. For this we utilize a new representation of this space intermediate between $L_1$ and the Sobolev space W1,1, compatible with the, so called, weak* topology. We obtain that HST is instance-wise equivalent to the Bolzano-Weierstra\ss\ principle over RCA0. With this HST is equivalent to ACA0 over RCA0. A similar classification is obtained in the Weihrauch lattice.

We begin to study classical dimension theory from the computable analysis (TTE) point of view. For computable metric spaces, several effectivisations of zero-dimensionality are shown to be equivalent. The part of this characterisation that concerns covering dimension extends to higher dimensions and to closed shrinkings of finite open covers. To deal with zero-dimensional subspaces uniformly, four operations (relative to the space and a class of subspaces) are defined; these correspond to definitions of inductive and covering dimensions and a countable basis condition. Finally, an effective retract characterisation of zero-dimensionality is proven under an effective compactness condition. In one direction this uses a version of the construction of bilocated sets.

We investigate choice principles in the Weihrauch lattice for finite sets on the one hand, and convex sets on the other hand. Increasing cardinality and increasing dimension both correspond to increasing Weihrauch degrees. Moreover, we demonstrate that the dimension of convex sets can be characterized by the cardinality of finite sets encodable into them. Precisely, choice from an n+1 point set is reducible to choice from a convex set of dimension n, but not reducible to choice from a convex set of dimension n-1. Furthermore we consider searching for zeros of continuous functions. We provide an algorithm producing 3n real numbers containing all zeros of a continuous function with up to n local minima. This demonstrates that having finitely many zeros is a strictly weaker condition than having finitely many local extrema. We can prove 3n to be optimal.

We study the computational difficulty of the problem of finding fixed points of nonexpansive mappings in uniformly convex Banach spaces. We show that the fixed point sets of computable nonexpansive self-maps of a nonempty, computably weakly closed, convex and bounded subset of a computable real Hilbert space are precisely the nonempty, co-r.e. weakly closed, convex subsets of the domain. A uniform version of this result allows us to determine the Weihrauch degree of the Browder-Goehde-Kirk theorem in computable real Hilbert space: it is equivalent to a closed choice principle, which receives as input a closed, convex and bounded set via negative information in the weak topology and outputs a point in the set, represented in the strong topology. While in finite dimensional uniformly convex Banach spaces, computable nonexpansive mappings always have computable fixed points, on the unit ball in infinite-dimensional separable Hilbert space the Browder-Goehde-Kirk theorem becomes Weihrauch-equivalent to the limit operator, and on the Hilbert cube it is equivalent to Weak Koenig's Lemma. In particular, computable nonexpansive mappings may not have any computable fixed points in infinite dimension. We also study the computational difficulty of the problem of finding rates of convergence for a large class of fixed point iterations, which generalise both Halpern- and Mann-iterations, and prove that the problem of finding rates of convergence already on the unit interval is equivalent […]

The TTE approach to Computable Analysis is the study of so-called representations (encodings for continuous objects such as reals, functions, and sets) with respect to the notions of computability they induce. A rich variety of such representations had been devised over the past decades, particularly regarding closed subsets of Euclidean space plus subclasses thereof (like compact subsets). In addition, they had been compared and classified with respect to both non-uniform computability of single sets and uniform computability of operators on sets. In this paper we refine these investigations from the point of view of computational complexity. Benefiting from the concept of second-order representations and complexity recently devised by Kawamura & Cook (2012), we determine parameterized complexity bounds for operators such as union, intersection, projection, and more generally function image and inversion. By indicating natural parameters in addition to the output precision, we get a uniform view on results by Ko (1991-2013), Braverman (2004/05) and Zhao & Müller (2008), relating these problems to the P/UP/NP question in discrete complexity theory.