2014

String rewriting systems have proved very useful to study monoids. In good cases, they give finite presentations of monoids, allowing computations on those and their manipulation by a computer. Even better, when the presentation is confluent and terminating, they provide one with a notion of canonical representative of the elements of the presented monoid. Polygraphs are a higher-dimensional generalization of this notion of presentation, from the setting of monoids to the much more general setting of n-categories. One of the main purposes of this article is to give a progressive introduction to the notion of higher-dimensional rewriting system provided by polygraphs, and describe its links with classical rewriting theory, string and term rewriting systems in particular. After introducing the general setting, we will be interested in proving local confluence for polygraphs presenting 2-categories and introduce a framework in which a finite 3-dimensional rewriting system admits a finite number of critical pairs.

We construct a symmetric monoidal closed category of polynomial endofunctors (as objects) and simulation cells (as morphisms). This structure is defined using universal properties without reference to representing polynomial diagrams and is reminiscent of Day's convolution on presheaves. We then make this category into a model for intuitionistic linear logic by defining an additive and exponential structure.

Evaluating a Boolean conjunctive query Q against a guarded first-order theory F is equivalent to checking whether "F and not Q" is unsatisfiable. This problem is relevant to the areas of database theory and description logic. Since Q may not be guarded, well known results about the decidability, complexity, and finite-model property of the guarded fragment do not obviously carry over to conjunctive query answering over guarded theories, and had been left open in general. By investigating finite guarded bisimilar covers of hypergraphs and relational structures, and by substantially generalising Rosati's finite chase, we prove for guarded theories F and (unions of) conjunctive queries Q that (i) Q is true in each model of F iff Q is true in each finite model of F and (ii) determining whether F implies Q is 2EXPTIME-complete. We further show the following results: (iii) the existence of polynomial-size conformal covers of arbitrary hypergraphs; (iv) a new proof of the finite model property of the clique-guarded fragment; (v) the small model property of the guarded fragment with optimal bounds; (vi) a polynomial-time solution to the canonisation problem modulo guarded bisimulation, which yields (vii) a capturing result for guarded bisimulation invariant PTIME.

As observed by Intrigila, there are hardly techniques available in the lambda-calculus to prove that two lambda-terms are not beta-convertible. Techniques employing the usual Boehm Trees are inadequate when we deal with terms having the same Boehm Tree (BT). This is the case in particular for fixed point combinators, as they all have the same BT. Another interesting equation, whose consideration was suggested by Scott, is BY = BYS, an equation valid in the classical model P-omega of lambda-calculus, and hence valid with respect to BT-equality but nevertheless the terms are beta-inconvertible. To prove such beta-inconvertibilities, we employ `clocked' BT's, with annotations that convey information of the tempo in which the data in the BT are produced. Boehm Trees are thus enriched with an intrinsic clock behaviour, leading to a refined discrimination method for lambda-terms. The corresponding equality is strictly intermediate between beta-convertibility and Boehm Tree equality, the equality in the model P-omega. An analogous approach pertains to Levy-Longo and Berarducci Trees. Our refined Boehm Trees find in particular an application in beta-discriminating fixed point combinators (fpc's). It turns out that Scott's equation BY = BYS is the key to unlocking a plethora of fpc's, generated by a variety of production schemes of which the simplest was found by Boehm, stating that new fpc's are obtained by postfixing the term SI, also known as Smullyan's Owl. We prove that all […]

Deep inference is a proof theoretic methodology that generalizes the standard notion of inference of the sequent calculus, whereby inference rules become applicable at any depth inside logical expressions. Deep inference provides more freedom in the design of deductive systems for different logics and a rich combinatoric analysis of proofs. In particular, construction of exponentially shorter analytic proofs becomes possible, however with the cost of a greater nondeterminism than in the sequent calculus. In this paper, we show that the nondeterminism in proof search can be reduced without losing the shorter proofs and without sacrificing proof theoretic cleanliness. For this, we exploit an interaction and depth scheme in the logical expressions. We demonstrate our method on deep inference systems for multiplicative linear logic and classical logic, discuss its proof complexity and its relation to focusing, and present implementations.

We study an alternative model of infinitary term rewriting. Instead of a metric on terms, a partial order on partial terms is employed to formalise convergence of reductions. We consider both a weak and a strong notion of convergence and show that the metric model of convergence coincides with the partial order model restricted to total terms. Hence, partial order convergence constitutes a conservative extension of metric convergence, which additionally offers a fine-grained distinction between different levels of divergence. In the second part, we focus our investigation on strong convergence of orthogonal systems. The main result is that the gap between the metric model and the partial order model can be bridged by extending the term rewriting system by additional rules. These extensions are the well-known Böhm extensions. Based on this result, we are able to establish that -- contrary to the metric setting -- orthogonal systems are both infinitarily confluent and infinitarily normalising in the partial order setting. The unique infinitary normal forms that the partial order model admits are Böhm trees.

We present some contributions to the theory of infinitary rewriting for weakly orthogonal term rewrite systems, in which critical pairs may occur provided they are trivial. We show that the infinitary unique normal form property fails by an example of a weakly orthogonal TRS with two collapsing rules. By translating this example, we show that this property also fails for the infinitary lambda-beta-eta-calculus. As positive results we obtain the following: Infinitary confluence, and hence the infinitary unique normal forms property, holds for weakly orthogonal TRSs that do not contain collapsing rules. To this end we refine the compression lemma. Furthermore, we establish the triangle and diamond properties for infinitary multi-steps (complete developments) in weakly orthogonal TRSs, by refining an earlier cluster-analysis for the finite case.

A semi-computable set S in a computable metric space need not be computable. However, in some cases, if S has certain topological properties, we can conclude that S is computable. It is known that if a semi-computable set S is a compact manifold with boundary, then the computability of \deltaS implies the computability of S. In this paper we examine the case when S is a 1-manifold with boundary, not necessarily compact. We show that a similar result holds in this case under assumption that S has finitely many components.

Let A be a linear space of operators on a Hilbert space H, x a vector in H, and Ax the subspace of H comprising all vectors of the form Tx with T in A. We discuss, within a Bishop-style constructive framework, conditions under which the projection [Ax] of H on the closure of Ax exists. We derive a general result that leads directly to both the open mapping theorem and our main theorem on the existence of [Ax].

We introduce a logical foundation to reason on tree structures with constraints on the number of node occurrences. Related formalisms are limited to express occurrence constraints on particular tree regions, as for instance the children of a given node. By contrast, the logic introduced in the present work can concisely express numerical bounds on any region, descendants or ancestors for instance. We prove that the logic is decidable in single exponential time even if the numerical constraints are in binary form. We also illustrate the usage of the logic in the description of numerical constraints on multi-directional path queries on XML documents. Furthermore, numerical restrictions on regular languages (XML schemas) can also be concisely described by the logic. This implies a characterization of decidable counting extensions of XPath queries and XML schemas. Moreover, as the logic is closed under negation, it can thus be used as an optimal reasoning framework for testing emptiness, containment and equivalence.

The design and verification of cryptographic protocols is a notoriously difficult task, even in symbolic models which take an abstract view of cryptography. This is mainly due to the fact that protocols may interact with an arbitrary attacker which yields a verification problem that has several sources of unboundedness (size of messages, number of sessions, etc. In this paper, we characterize a class of protocols for which deciding security for an unbounded number of sessions is decidable. More precisely, we present a simple transformation which maps a protocol that is secure for a bounded number of protocol sessions (a decidable problem) to a protocol that is secure for an unbounded number of sessions. The precise number of sessions that need to be considered is a function of the security property and we show that for several classical security properties a single session is sufficient. Therefore, in many cases our results yields a design strategy for security protocols: (i) design a protocol intended to be secure for a {single session}; and (ii) apply our transformation to obtain a protocol which is secure for an unbounded number of sessions.

Classification problems have been introduced by M. Ziegler as a generalization of promise problems. In this paper we are concerned with solvability and unsolvability questions with respect to a given set or language family, especially with cores of unsolvability. We generalize the results about unsolvability cores in promise problems to classification problems. Our main results are a characterization of unsolvability cores via cohesiveness and existence theorems for such cores in unsolvable classification problems. In contrast to promise problems we have to strengthen the conditions to assert the existence of such cores. In general unsolvable classification problems with more than two components exist, which possess no cores, even if the set family under consideration satisfies the assumptions which are necessary to prove the existence of cores in unsolvable promise problems. But, if one of the components is fixed we can use the results on unsolvability cores in promise problems, to assert the existence of such cores in general. In this case we speak of conditional classification problems and conditional cores. The existence of conditional cores can be related to complexity cores. Using this connection we can prove for language families, that conditional cores with recursive components exist, provided that this family admits an uniform solution for the word problem.

Probability logic has contributed to significant developments in belief types for game-theoretical economics. We present a new probability logic for Harsanyi Type spaces, show its completeness, and prove both a de-nesting property and a unique extension theorem. We then prove that multi-agent interactive epistemology has greater complexity than its single-agent counterpart by showing that if the probability indices of the belief language are restricted to a finite set of rationals and there are finitely many propositional letters, then the canonical space for probabilistic beliefs with one agent is finite while the canonical one with at least two agents has the cardinality of the continuum. Finally, we generalize the three notions of definability in multimodal logics to logics of probabilistic belief and knowledge, namely implicit definability, reducibility, and explicit definability. We find that S5-knowledge can be implicitly defined by probabilistic belief but not reduced to it and hence is not explicitly definable by probabilistic belief.

We consider two-player games played on finite graphs equipped with costs on edges and introduce two winning conditions, cost-parity and cost-Streett, which require bounds on the cost between requests and their responses. Both conditions generalize the corresponding classical omega-regular conditions and the corresponding finitary conditions. For parity games with costs we show that the first player has positional winning strategies and that determining the winner lies in NP and coNP. For Streett games with costs we show that the first player has finite-state winning strategies and that determining the winner is EXPTIME-complete. The second player might need infinite memory in both games. Both types of games with costs can be solved by solving linearly many instances of their classical variants.

We define a pi-calculus variant with a costed semantics where channels are treated as resources that must explicitly be allocated before they are used and can be deallocated when no longer required. We use a substructural type system tracking permission transfer to construct coinductive proof techniques for comparing behaviour and resource usage efficiency of concurrent processes. We establish full abstraction results between our coinductive definitions and a contextual behavioural preorder describing a notion of process efficiency w.r.t. its management of resources. We also justify these definitions and respective proof techniques through numerous examples and a case study comparing two concurrent implementations of an extensible buffer.

The Stone tautologies are known to have polynomial size resolution refutations and require exponential size regular refutations. We prove that the Stone tautologies also have polynomial size proofs in both pool resolution and the proof system of regular tree-like resolution with input lemmas (regRTI). Therefore, the Stone tautologies do not separate resolution from DPLL with clause learning.

Synthesis is the automatic construction of a system from its specification. In classical synthesis algorithms, it is always assumed that the system is "constructed from scratch" rather than composed from reusable components. This, of course, rarely happens in real life, where almost every non-trivial commercial software system relies heavily on using libraries of reusable components. Furthermore, other contexts, such as web-service orchestration, can be modeled as synthesis of a system from a library of components. Recently, Lustig and Vardi introduced dataflow and control-flow synthesis from libraries of reusable components. They proved that dataflow synthesis is undecidable, while control-flow synthesis is decidable. In this work, we consider the problem of control-flow synthesis from libraries of probabilistic components . We show that this more general problem is also decidable.